The Representation of English and Arabic Para Athletes with Special Reference to Transitivity System


  • Saad Qasim Al-Kaaby University of Baghdad, College of Arts, English Department
  • Prof. Nassier Abbas Ghubin Al-Zubaidi University of Baghdad/ College of Arts/ English Department



Critical Stylistic Analysis (CSA), Social Actors, Representation, Transitivity, Para Athletes, Paralympic sport


     This article employs one of the tools proposed by Jeffries’ (2010) framework of critical stylistic namely the TCF of representing actions/events /and states (transitivity) to examine how male and female Para Athletes are linguistically constructed as social actors in selected English and Arabic Paralympic sport magazines. It aims to identify the stylistic strategies employed in these selected magazines in their textual representation to construct the identity of Para Athletes and the effect of gender and disability in such representation. The study is focused on the analysis of 10 English articles and 10 Arabic articles from English and Arabic magazines related to the field of Para sport and issued between 2016 and 2020. To achieve the research objectives, the study hypothesizes that both the English and Arabic texts tend to assign agent roles to Para Athletes with varied gender preferences. The results of this study show that the selected magazines activate Para Athletes in an attempt to bring People with disabilities (PWDs) from margin to the foreground as social actors. However, the findings also indicate a differential representation of Para Athletes in terms of gender in that both English and Arabic texts allocate agent roles to Para Athletes, however the English texts portray males mainly as Sensers and Sayers, while the Arabic texts portray females as Actors, Sensers, Carriers, and Sayers more than males. This contradicts the common belief that women's contribution to society is excluded and underestimated, suggesting that they can play an important functional role in society like men, regardless of their social status.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Saad Qasim Al-Kaaby, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, English Department

    graduate student

  • Prof. Nassier Abbas Ghubin Al-Zubaidi, University of Baghdad/ College of Arts/ English Department

    Prof. at University of Baghdad/ College of Arts/ English Department


Alege, T. C. A. (2018). Lexico-Semantic Analysis of the Language of Sports Reporting in a Nigerian Sports Magazine. Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) 23 (6), 77-84.

Al-Janabi, S. F. K., & Al-Marsumi, N. H. R. (2021). Doing Stylistic versus Critical

Stylistic: An Analysis of" If" by Rudyard Kipling. Arab World English

Journal, 12(1), 239-252.

Al-Timimi, A. (2018). A Critical Stylistic Analysis of English and Arabic Political Texts on Genocide: A Contrastive Study. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Baghdad: Baghdad.

Beard, A. (1998). The language of sport. USA: Routledge.

Burke, M. (Ed.). (2017). The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics. London: Routledge.

Caldwell, D., Walsh, J., Vine, E. W., and Jureidini, J. (Eds.). (2016). The

Discourse of Sport Analyses from Social Linguistics. Routledge.

Chang, Ik Young. (2009). One world, one dream: comparisons of the newspaper coverage of the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (Doctoral dissertation, Lakehead University, Canada).

Coakley, J. (2009). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

DePauw, K., and Gavron, S. (1995). Disability and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ducrot, O. and Todorov, T. (1979). Encyclopaedia Dictionary of Sciences of Language. Baltimore: John Hopkins.

Guerrero, M., & Martin, J. (2018). Para sport athletic identity from competition to retirement: A brief review and future research directions. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 29(2), 387-396.

Hardin, M. M., & Hardin, B. (2004). The 'supercrip; in sport media: wheelchair athletes discuss hegemony's disabled hero. Sociology of Sport Online-SOSOL, 7(1).

Hasan.H. (2019). A Corpus Critical Stylistic Analysis Of Selected Political Plays By David Hare And Tony Kushner. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Baghdad: Baghdad.

Hermeston, R. (2017). Towards A Critical Stylistics of Disability. Journal of Language and Discrimination, 1(1), 34-60.

IPC. (1989). Vision mission and values. [Online]. [Accessed on 24 March 2021]. Available from:

Jeffries, L. (2010). Critical Stylistics. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kim, K. T., Lee, S., & Oh, E. S. (2017). Athletes with disabilities in the Paralympic games: a framing analysis of television news. Managing Sport and Leisure, 22(4), 255-275.

Rees, L., Robinson, P., & Shields, N. (2019). Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability – a systematic review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(4), 374–381.

Ramon, Xavier, and José Luis Rojas-Torrijos. 2022. Public service media, sports and cultural citizenship in the age of social media: An analysis of BBC Sport agenda diversity on Twitter. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 57: 918–39.

Schantz, J. and Gilbert, K. (2001). An ideal misconstrued: Newspaper coverage of the Atlanta Paralympic games in France and Germany. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(1), 69-94.

Smith, B., Bundon, A., & Best, M. (2016). Disability sport and activist identities: A qualitative study of narratives of activism among elite athletes with impairment. Psychology of sport and exercise, 26, 139-148.

Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group Process and Productivity. New York: Academic Press.

Stockwell, P., & Whiteley, S. (Eds.). (2014). The Cambridge handbook of stylistics. Cambridge University Press.

Sydhagen, P. B. (2017). How can we distinguish perception from cognition? the perceptual adaptation hypothesis (Master's thesis, Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas University of Oslo).

Tabbert, U. (2015). Crime and corpus: The linguistic representation of crime in the press (Vol. 20). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Van Leeuwen, T. (2008). Discourse and practice: New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.






English linguistics and literature

How to Cite

The Representation of English and Arabic Para Athletes with Special Reference to Transitivity System. (2023). Al-Adab Journal, 2(146), 25-44.

Publication Dates

Similar Articles

1-10 of 876

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.