Opposites in the Arabic language between the ancient and the modern
Though ancient, the subject matter of my research paper has been dealt with by many precedent scholars who compose dictionaries of (opposites) which have been referred to by other scholars in some chapters of their books. They showed their adversaries and dialects as far as the truth of (opposites) is concerned. Among them are those who deny their existence in the Arabic language, those who approved them and those who triumphantly insist upon their existence. Verily, this is a live linguistic case study in which many researchers- Arab contemporaries and orientalists as well- have been interested. They are divided into opponents and exponents, of whom there are those who deny their existence in Arabic and those who concur them. They thusly try to investigate them in other languages especially the Semitic language, looking for the causes conducive to their appearance and trying to find justifications for their existence. They clearly examined their articulations to find whether the (opposites) were a fact or they were inserted in the Arabic language as exactly did many of our precedent scholars. The notion of the (opposites) remains a live linguistic case study and a fresh subject matter that always renews itself.
My study has concluded that the Arab scholars have expanded the subject of the (opposites) and multiplied them to the extent that they inserted in them what does not belong to their domain. Hence, they corroded them to the extent that they became what they wrongly believe them to be now. This study is an attempt to add significant facts to what precedent scholars did in this respect to the treatment of the (opposites), in order to unfold the truth about many of their articulations
The Noble Qur’an.
Al-Marzouqi, Abu Ali Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Al Hassan (D 421 AH) (1991): Explanation of the Court of Enthusiasm, investigation: Ahmed Amin and Abdel Salam Haroun, 1st edition, Dar Al Jeel, Beirut.
Al-Amri, Lapid bin Rabia bin Malik (D. 41 AH) (without history): Diwan of Lapid bin Rabia, Dar Sader, Beirut.
Al-Ansari, Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Jamal Al-Din Ibn Hisham (d. 761 AH) (without history): Al-Labib's singer on the books of Al-Aariab, by: Mohamed Mohy El-Din Abdel-Hamid, Al-Madani Press, Cairo.
Al-Asfahani, Abu Al-Qasim Al-Hussein Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad Ibn
Al-Fadl, (503 AH), (2008): A glossary of the vocabulary of the words of the Qur’an, an investigation: Ibrahim Shams al-Din, Dar al-Kutub al-Alami, third edition, Beirut
Al-Awsi, Dr. Qais Ismail (1988): Methods of demand for grammarians and rhetoric, House of Wisdom, Baghdad
Al-Halabi, Abu Al-Tayyib Linguist Abd Al-Wahid Ibn Ali (351 AH), (2012): opposites in the words of Arabs, investigation: Muhammad Al-Sayyid Othman, Dar Al-Kutub, Lebanon.
Al-Muradi Hassan bin Qasim (749 AH), (1976): The Fairy Fairy in the Letters of Meanings, Achieved by: Taha Mohsen, Mosul University Press.
Al-Qazwini, Al-Khatib Jalal Al-Din Muhammad (739 AH), (1975): Clarification in the Sciences of Rhetoric, investigation: Muhammad Abdel-Moneim Khafaji, Fourth Edition, Dar Al-Kitab Al-Lebnani, Beirut.
Al-Samarrai, Dr. Ibrahim (1981): Historical Linguistic Development, Dar Al-Andalus for Printing and Publishing, Second Edition, Beirut.
Al-Suyuti, Abd Al-Rahman Jalal Al-Din (911 AH), (without history): Al-Mzuhir in the Sciences of the Language and its Types.
Al-Yassin, Muhammad Hussein (1974): opposites in language,
Al-Maaref Press, Baghdad.
Haider, Dr. Farid Awad (2005): the science of semantics, theoretical and applied studies, the library of arts, Cairo.
Ibn Al-Anbari, Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Al-Qasim (328 AH), (1325 AH): opposites in the language, seized and corrected: Muhammad Abd Al-Qadir Saeed Al-Rafi`i and Ahmad Al-Shanqiti,
Al-Husayniyya Press, Egypt.
Ibn Al-Sikkit, Abu Yusef Ya`qub ibn Ishaq (244 AH), (1998): The book of opposites, investigation: Dr. Muhammad Awda Salama, Library of Religious Culture, Egypt.
Ibn Faris, Abu al-Husayn Ahmad (395 AH), (1964): Al-Sahebi in the Jurisprudence of Language and the Sunnah of the Arabs in its Speeches, investigation: Mustafa Al-Shuwaimi, Badran Institution for Printing and Publishing, Beirut.
Ibn Manzoor, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Fadl Muhammad ibn Makram (711 AH), (without history): The Tongue of the Arabs, Dar Al-Maarif, Egypt.
Copyright (c) 2021 Sarra'a Qais Ismaeel Mahmoud Al-Awsy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.