Gender and Native-ness Differences in the Use of Speech Fillers in Political Interviews
This research aims to find out types and functions of speech fillers used by politician interviewees. It also investigates gender and native-ness differences in the use of SFS among participants. The data of this study come from eight extracted episodes taken from the corpus of conflict zone (CZ) talk show. The data have been analyzed and classified based on the theories proposed by Stenstrom (1994) and Rose (1998). A qualitative analysis has been followed in dealing with functions of SFs. A quantitative analysis is also applied in the course of counting frequencies and percentages of SFs. The results show that time is required for planning, especially when difficult topics are discussed. Results show that all participants used all types of SFs with unlexicalized SFs being used more frequently.
In terms of functions of SFs, Female participants used all functions of SFs based on the theory of Stenstrom. They are breathing, filling pause, hesitation mark, starter, shift marker, empathizing, mitigating, editing term, time creating device, holding the turn and sequencer, while the male groups used all functions except shift marker. Breathing is the dominating function of SFs used by all participants with vast distinction with other functions. In contrast, shift marker has the least used function.
Al Khalifawi, S. H. S. (2018). Analysis of Turn-Taking in Senior University Classroom Interactions: Pauses, Overlapping, and Interruptions. Iraq: University of Anbar.
Al-Ghazali A & Alrefaee. (2019). Silent Pauses in the Speech of Yemeni EFL Learners. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 2 (1), 39.
Baalen, I. V. (2001). Male and female language: Growing together? Retrieved from http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/hsl_shl/van%20Baalen.htm
Blum-Kulka, S. (1983). The Dynamics of Political Interviews. Mouton Publishers, Amsterdam. Text, 32, 131-55.
Brown, G. & Yule, G. (1983). Discourse analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Erbaugh, M.S. (1979)." A uniform pause and error strategy for native and non-native speakers". In R.S. Tomlin (Ed.). Coherence and Grounding in Discourse, (pp.109-130). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Erten, S. (2014) .Teaching Fillers and Students’ Filler Usage: A Study Conducted at ESOGU Preparation School. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 2, 3: 67-79.
Foss, J. D. & Hakes, David J. (1978). Psycholinguistics: An Introduction to the Psychology of Language. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Inc.
Fraser, B. (1996). Pragmatic Markers. International Pragmatics Association, 6, 167- 190.
Kharismawan, P. Y. (2017). The Types and The Function of Fillers Used in Barack Obama’s Speech. International Journal of Humanity Studies, 1(1), 111-119. : https://doi.org/10.24071/ijhs.2017.010112
Navratilova, L. (2015). Fillers Used By Male and Female Students of English Education Study Program in Argumentative Talks. Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching. Vol.2 No 1.
Richards, J. & R. Schmidt. (2012). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. Essex: Longman.
Rieger, C. (2003). Disfluencies and hesitation strategies in oral L2 tests. Proceedings of DiSS’03: Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech Workshop, 5–8 September 2003, Göteborg University, Sweden. Robert Eklund (Ed.), Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics, 90, 41–44.
Rose, R. L. (1998). The communicative value of filled pauses in spontaneous speech. Birmingham: Birmingham University.
Stenstrom, A. 1994. An introduction to spoken language interaction. London: Longman.
Szczepek Reed, B. (2011). Analyzing Conversation Introduction to Prosody. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tottie, G. (2011). Uh and um as sociolinguistic markers in British English. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16. 173–197
Wu, J. (2001). A quantitative comparison of disfluencies types between native and non-native English speaker in spontaneous speech. Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA.
Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Copyright (c) 2022 Rola Fawwaz Hamad AL-Faragy, Fuad Jassim Mohammed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.