Parental Coping Styles and Its Relationship with the Strengthening Behavior Among Intermediate School Students

  • Noor Badri Noori Directorate General of Education –Al-Karkh Sector /3 –Baghdad
Keywords: Parental Treatment Styles, Strengthening Behavior,, Intermediate School Students

Abstract

The current study aims at finding out the correlational relationship between Parental Coping Styles and Its Relationship With the Strengthening Behavior Among Intermediate School Students .In order to achieve this aim , the researcher herself  has adopted the Parental Coping Styles Scale by  Al-Bazi (2008) .The scale consists of (4) styles ,namely Democratic , Predominating , Excessive Protection  , and  Negligence Styles .This scale includes two corresponding images , the first is devoted to the father and the second to the mother , containing (25) items distributing into the four styles with four alternatives for responding formulated by Literal Situations Style and Strengthening Behavior Scale by Hameed (2012) which consists of (3) dimensions ,namely the physical , the Literal , and the psychological ones .The scale contains (44) items distributing into the three dimensions of the scale as (12,14,16) and with a grading of Tertiary alternatives (Highly  Applicable on  me , Somewhat Applicable on  me , Never  Applicable on  me).The researcher has verified the psychometric features of the scale such as Validity and Reliability , then both scales have been conducted on the sample of the study , totally (200) 3rd grade intermediate students of both genders  at Directorate General of Education – Al-Karkh Sector /3 -Baghdad during the academic year 2020-2021 .The sample was randomly selected out of the study population.

Having collected and statistically analyzed the data, the researcher has come up with the following:

-The democratic style is the dominating one , followed by the predominating, and the negligence one , and the excessive protection styles respectively .Also, the sample of the study do not practice the strengthening behavior with their peers and the results show the weak correlational relationship between parental Coping styles (democratic , predominating , excessive protection , and negligence styles) and the strengthening behavior and there is no a statistically significant difference between the two concepts.

Based on the above findings, the researcher has set specific recommendations, as well as a number of suggestions for further studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

AL- Quran.

Abdel-Khaleq, Ahmed Majid (1997): Basic Dimensions of Personality, University House for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Cairo.

Abu al-Khair, Qanbar (2003): Juvenile Deviation, Knowledge Library, Alexandria, Egypt.

Adler, A (1964): Superiority and Social Interest A collection of later writings, Edited by H L Ansbacher and Rowena Ansbacher, New York: Harper.

Akil, Aqeel Hussein (1999): The Philosophy of Scientific Research Methods, Madbouly Library, Tripoli.

Al-Akkad, Essam Abdel-Latif (2001): Psychology of Aggression, Gharib House for Printing and Publishing, Cairo.

Al-Ani, Nizar (1988): Patterns of psychological upbringing in the family and its relationship to the culture of a pre-school child, a master's thesis (unpublished), College of Education for Girls, University of Baghdad.

Al-Ardah, Iman (1998): The impact of the family environment and the interaction between teacher and student on the development of students' self-concept, Master's thesis (unpublished), University of Jordan, Amman.

Al-Azza, Saad Hosni (2000): Family Guidance, 1st Edition, Dar Al-Thaqafa Library for Publishing and Distribution, Amman.

Al-Hiti, Mustafa Abdel Salam (1985): Personality World, Munir Press, Baghdad.

Al-Jubouri, Hamid Salem Khalaf (2002): The authoritarian personality of the Iraqi teenager and its relationship to some cognitive styles and parenting style, Master's thesis (unpublished), Ibn Rushd College of Education, University of Baghdad.

Al-Kayyal, Daham (1988): Principles of Freudian Psychology, House of Cultural Affairs, 3rd Edition, Baghdad.

Al-Kilani, Abdullah and Al-Sharifi, Nidal Kamal (2007): An Introduction to Research in Educational and Social Sciences, Dar Al Masirah for Printing and Publishing, Amman, Jordan.

Al-Kubaisi, Wahib Majeed (1992): Measuring the neurotic tendency among university students, the Iraqi Association for Educational and Psychological Sciences, Baghdad.

Al-Najjar, Nabil Juma Saleh (2009): Statistics in Education and Human Sciences (spss software applications), 1st Edition, Dar Al-Hamid for Printing and Publishing, Mutah University, Jordan.

Al-Qahtani, Noura Bint Saad (2009): The phenomenon of bullying among middle school students in public and private schools in Riyadh, PhD thesis, University of Riyadh.

Al-Rawaf, Alaa Saad (2003): Methods of parental treatment as perceived by children and their relationship to the motivation of academic achievement among Baghdad University students, a master's thesis (unpublished), College of Education for Girls, University of Baghdad.

Al-Rawi, Maysoon Zahir (2002): Parental treatment styles and their relationship to irrational thoughts among university students, a master's thesis (unpublished), Ibn Al-Haytham College of Education, University of Baghdad.

Al-Shammari, Jassem Fayyad (2001): Feelings of guilt among university students and its relationship to some variables, Al-Mustansiriya Journal of Literature, No. 37, pp. 237-264.

Al-Tamimi, Haider Shamsi Hassan (2002): Neurotic Disputes and their Relationship to Parental Treatment Methods among Baghdad University Students, Master's Thesis (unpublished), Ibn Rushd College of Education, University of Baghdad.

Al-Zawba'i, Abdul-Jalil Ibrahim and Bakr, Muhammad Elias and Al-Kinani, Ibrahim Abdul-Hassan (1981): Psychological Tests and Measures, Ministry of Higher Education, Dar Al-Kutub Press for Printing and Publishing, Mosul, Iraq.

Al-Zoghbi, Ahmed Mohamed (1997): Bullying behavior in children (how to understand and search for it), Journal of Education, Vol. 26, No. 21, Cairo.

Asila, Muhammad and Al-Haloul, Ismail (2006): The phenomenon of violence and its relationship to personality traits, Journal of the College of Education, No. 3, Part 2, Ain Shams University.

Awad, Abbas Mahmoud (1998): Psychometrics between theory and practice, University Knowledge House, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Bandura, A (1971): Social Learning Theory, Englewood Cliffs: N.J, Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A (1993): Social Cognitive Theory, Inr, vasta and carrent issues Jessica kingsley publishers.

Conger, JJ & Kagan, J (1980): Essentials of child development personality, Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

Conger, John & Mosen, Paul & Keegan, Jerome (1970): Childhood and Personality Psychology, translated by Ahmed Abdel Aziz Salama and Gaber Abdel Hamid Jaber, Arab Renaissance House, Cairo.

Davidoff, Lindal (1983): Introduction to Psychology, 3rd Edition, Dar Al-Marikh Publishing, Riyadh.

El-Deeb, Fatima Mohamed Reda (2000): The Psychology of Violence Among Youth, Master's Thesis, Faculty of Arts, Ain Shams University.

El-Meligy, Helmy (1972): Contemporary Psychology, 2nd Edition, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Beirut.

El-Shazly, Fattouh (2001): Studies in Criminology, University Press, Alexandria, Egypt.

Fontana, David (1989): Personality and Education, translated by Abdul Hamid Yaqoub, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.

Hafez, Nabil Abdel-Fattah and others (2000): Social Psychology, 1st Edition, Zahraa Al-Sharq Library, Cairo.

Hall, Calvin (1988): Principles of Psychology, translated by Dahham Al-Kayyal, Al-Rusafi Press, 3rd Edition, Baghdad.

Hall, J. and Lindsey, K. (1969): Personality Theories, translated by Farag Ahmed Farag and others, Arab Thought House, Cairo.

Hall, J. and Lindsey, K. (1971): Personality Theories, translated by Farag Ahmed Farag and others, the Egyptian General Authority for Authoring and Publishing, Cairo.

Hanif, R & Smith, P.K (2007): Development of school climate scale, An unpublished research, unit for school and family studies, golds smiths, university of London.

Hanin, Rushdi Abda (1983): Research and Studies in Adolescence, New Publications House, Kuwait.

Huebner, A (2001): Adolescent growth and development, Human Development.

Hurlock, Elizabetch (1983): B. Development Psychology alife span Approach, New York, MC-Graw Hill.

Jasmani, Abd Ali (B. T): The Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence and its Basic Facts, Afaq Arab Library, Baghdad.

Jurists, Issam (2001): Levels of Inclination to Practice Bullying Behavior, Journal of Educational Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 1, Amman.

Kafafi, Aladdin (1989): Mental Health, Anglo-Egyptian Library, Cairo.

Kamal, Ibrahim Morsi (1976): Anxiety and its relationship to personality in adolescence - an empirical study, PhD thesis (unpublished), College of Arts, Kuwait University.

Koupernik, A (1978): The child in his family, Wiley Interscience Publication, New York.

Lazbeidi, Ali Jassem (1999): The development of the concept of justice in the Iraqi child and its relationship to role-taking and parental treatment patterns, PhD thesis (unpublished), College of Education ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad.

Lazghloul, Imad Abdel Rahim (2001): Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Children, Dar Al-Sharaf for Publishing and Distribution.

Lebdy, J & Connell (2002): The prevalence nature and psychological correlates of bullying in lrish, prisons-legal and criminological psychological society (7).

Losel, F & Bender, P (2007): Social in formation processing, experiences of a bullying in social contexts and aggressive behavior in addescentscriminut justice and behavior, N3.

Mahmoud, Fatima Hanafi (1995): Preparing a group play program to reduce bullying behavior, studies and research in psychology, Arab Thought House, Cairo.

Malim, Tony & Birch, Ann (1998): Introductory Psychology, Mc Graw Hill Co, New York.

Mellar, A (1997): Bullying in Scottish secondary school, eon-line-available at.

Ministry of Education (1981): General Directorate of Educational Planning, Iraq.

Morsi, Kamal Ibrahim (1989): Psychology of Aggression, Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 13, Number 2, Cairo.

Mussen, P (1976): Early Socialization Learning & Psychology, New Com., New York.

Olweus, D (1993): Bullying at school., what we know and what we can do, oxford, blackwey.

Olweus, D (2001): Bullying at school taking the problem, Research center for health promotion.

Perren, S & Alsaker, F (2006): social behavior and peer relationships of victim's bully-victims and bullies in kindergarten journey al of child psychology allied disciplines, 47(1).

Pervin, L.A. (1980): Personality Theory Assessment & Research, Johan Willy & Sons Com, New York.

Qatami, Youssef and Al-Sarayrah, Mona (2009): The Bully Child, Publishing and Distribution House, Amman.

Raho, Janan Saeed (1994): Psychological security for adolescents and its relationship to parenting styles, MA thesis (unpublished), College of Education ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad.

Sears, R (1967): Relation of Early Socialization Experiences to Self Concept & Gender Role in Middle Childhood Dev, vol. 41.

Silami, Lorter (2000): Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology, translated by Asaad Wajih, Damascus.

Smith, J & Hover, D (1999): Tackling bullying in your school: a practical handbook for teacher, London, New York.

Van Dalen, Deopold (1985): Research Methods in Education and Psychology, translated by Muhammad Nabil Nofal, 3rd Edition, Anglo-Egyptian Library, Cairo.

Wood, S & Wolke, P (2004): the association between direct and relational bullying and behavior problems among primary school children, journal of child psychology, 14(8).

Zahran, Hamed Abdel Salam (1974): Social Psychology, World of Books, Cairo.

Zahran, Hamed Abdel Salam (1998): Violence and Bullying, Journal of the Reassuring Nafs, World Islamic Association for Mental Health, No. 23.

Published
2021-09-15
How to Cite
Noori, N. (2021). Parental Coping Styles and Its Relationship with the Strengthening Behavior Among Intermediate School Students. Al-Adab Journal, 1(138), 285-318. https://doi.org/10.31973/aj.v1i138.1724
Section
Educational and psychological sciences