Primacy of Arabic Poetry
An Anthropological Cultural Study
This research tackles the anthropological significance of the beginnings of Arabic poetry as a cultural study of its written phase.
The cultural studies as well as the cultural anthropological studies are concerned with whatsoever man produces away from heredity. Culture is an evolving structure rather than a static one that is passed from one generation to another. Hence, in studying the culture of a certain people at a given time period care should be given to the manifestations of this structure; i.e., the cultural processes of producing meaning. This requires an investigation in the everyday popular culture or literature; the commonplace rather than the canonical or mainstream literature which produces meta-narratives that do not reveal the individuals' activities of everyday life; these manifestations are fixed concepts that have been formed by a collective elite consciousness.
It can be said that the "Arajeez" (Arabic plural for "Erjooza" which is a poem that follows the "rajaz" meter) or the verses that represent the beginnings of Arabic poetry had suffered marginalization and elimination at the early stage of writing the Arabic culture as they had been compared to the literature of the elite or the high literature which is artistically and linguistically more mature; it is the literature of the markets of Mecca.
Another point should be made, these arajeez were eliminated by scholars and linguists during their endeavors to put grammatical and critical rules, as a rule is built on what is common, familiar, and standard rather than on what is peculiar and uncommon. Those texts had been improvised spontaneously and were not subjected to artistic or thematic polish or standardization. They articulated daily practices and were not an elite literature. Those verses or poems started with the activity of the first Arab Bedouins in the desert (with the desert- guide or camel-rider). They represented the early beginnings of founding a collective Arabic consciousness when Arabs started their first steps of gathering in groups and communities and then of integrating into tribes with abstract intellectual bondages which were shared among tribe members and that enhance their existence. Poetry was a manifestation of these bonds, being a metrical parole that is easy for memory to "carry" every time they travel in search for water and grass.
Early poetry was a spontaneous art produced on the spot. However, it revealed reflections on abstract concepts which were ahead of their time like, for instance, the concept of time as, in spite of the primitivism of their life-style, Bedouins realized that it is time that defeats man, so they tried to transcend it by their linguistic skills through the ability to come up with an artistic expression that is immortalized after their death.
The investigation of those artistically primitive texts is significant as they constitute man's cultural identity. Cultural identity is formed by everything the individuals produce like legends, popular tales, spontaneous arts, and so on; away from the categories of high and low, central and peripheral, elite and common. And the bigger the collective cultural repertoire among individuals is, the more solid identity those individuals have; an identity that gathers them and that firstly expresses itself, and secondly, distinguishes itself from other identities by avoiding dissolve and imitation. It is an identity that rests on a cultural reserve what makes it able to be itself every time it comes into contact with the Other.
Abdul Malik bin Kareb Al Asmaei. (1980). The Virility of the Poets (Volume 2). (St. Toury, editor) Beirut: New Book House.
Abdul Malik bin Kareb Al Asmaei. (1995). Diwan Al-Ajaj. (Dr. Azza Hassan, Editor) Beirut: Dar Al-Shorouk Al-Arabi.
Abdul Qadir bin Omar Al-Baghdadi. (2004 AD). The Treasury of Literature and the Pulp of Bab Lisan Al Arab (Volume 4). (Abd al-Salam Muhammad Haroun, Editor) Cairo: The International Company for Printing.
Abdullah Al-Ghadhami. (2005). Cultural Criticism: A Reading in the Arab Cultural Systems (Volume 3). Beirut: Arab Cultural Center.
Abdullah Al-Tayyeb Al-Majzoub. (1955). The Guide to Understanding the Poetry of the Arabs (Volume 1). Cairo: Egypt Press.
Abdullah Mahmoud Al-Ghadhami. (1994). The Poem and the Counter-Text (Volume 1). Beirut: Arab Cultural Center.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Imran Marzabani. (1995). Muwashshah in scholars' sockets on poets. Beirut, Lebanon: House of Scientific Books.
Abu Al-Faraj Ali bin Al-Hussein bin Muhammad bin Ahmed Al-Asfahani. (1415 AH). Songs (Vol.1 i). Beirut: House of Revival of Arab Heritage.
Abu Ali Al-Hassan bin Rashid Al-Qayrawani. (1981). Al-Umda on the Beauties of Poetry and Its Literature (Volume 5). (Muhammad Muhyiddin Abdel Hamid, Editor) Beirut: Dar Al-Jeel.
Abu Hilal Al-Askari. (1964 AD). Proverbs (Volume 1). (Muhammad Abu al-Fadl Ibrahim, and Abd al-Majid Qatamesh, editors) Cairo: The Modern Arab Foundation for Printing, Publishing and Distribution.
Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Muslim bin Qutaybah. (1964). Poetry and Poets. Beirut: House of Culture.
Abu Othman Amr bin Bahr Al-Jahiz. (1964). Al-Jahiz Letters (Literary Messages). (Abd al-Salam Muhammad Haroun, Editor) Cairo: Al-Khanji Library.
Abu Othman Amr bin Bahr Al-Jahiz. (1965 AD). Animal (Vol. 2). (Abd al-Salam Muhammad Haroun, Editor) Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi Press.
Abu Othman Amr bin Bahr Al-Jahiz. (1998 AD). Statement and Explanation (Volume i 7). (Abd al-Salam Muhammad Haroun, Editor) Cairo: Al-Khanji Library.
Abu Ubaidah Muammar bin Muthanna Al-Taymi Al-Basri. (1991 AD). Brocade. Cairo: Al-Khanji Library.
Adnan Hussein Al-Awady. (1985). The language of modern poetry in Iraq (between the turn of the twentieth century and the Second World War). Baghdad: Publications of the Ministry of Culture and Information.
Adonis. (1989). Arabic Poetry (Volume 2). Beirut: House of Arts.
Agner Regiment. (2005). Cultural Selection (Vol.1 i). (Shawqi Jalal, editor) Cairo: The Supreme Council for Culture.
Al-Bandari bin Khalid bin Barak Al-Sudairy. (1434 AH). Employment of the proverb according to Al-Saghani (650 AH) at the forefront of the rich and luxurious pulp Journal of Linguistic Studies, Volume V.
Albert Hourani. (1997 AD). History of the Arab Peoples (Volume i 1). (Asaad Saqr, Editor) Damascus: Tlass House for Studies, Translation and Publishing.
Alessandro Durante. (2013 AD). Linguistic Anthropology (Vol.1 i). (Frank Darwish, Editor) Beirut: Arab Organization for Translation.
Andrew Edgar and Peter Sid Goick. (2014). Encyclopedia of Cultural Theory (Basic concepts and terminology) (Volume 2). (Hanaa El Gohary, the translators) Cairo: The National Center for Translation.
Anthony Gadner. (2005). Sociology (with Arabic entries) (Volume 1). (Fayez Al-Sayagh, Editor) Beirut: The Arab Organization for Translation, Tarjuman Foundation.
Carol M. Quinhan. (2013 AD). Anthropology of Food and the Body (Type, Meaning, and Power) (Vol.1 i). (Siham Abdel Salam, Editor) Cairo: The National Center for Translation.
Charles Bella. (1997 AD). History of Arabic Language and Literature (Volume 1). (Rafiq Ibn Wanas, and others, the editors) Beirut: Dar Al-Gharb Al-Islami.
Clifford Geertz. (2009). Interpretation of Cultures (Selected Essays) (Volume 1). (Mohamed Badawi, Editor) Beirut, Lebanon: The Arab Organization for Translation.
Dennis Cush. (2007). The concept of culture in the social sciences (Volume 1). (Munir Al-Eidani, translators) Beirut: The Arab Organization for Translation.
Dr. Mahdi to lam. (2009 AD). The structure of the Argoza and the beauty of receiving it among the Arabs. Casablanca: East Africa for Printing and Publishing.
Fakhry Saleh. (September 2014) Yusef Sami Al-Youssef and pre-Islamic poetry. Al-Arabi Magazine (670).
Gaston Bashlar. (1984 AD). Aesthetics of Place (Volume 2). (Ghalib Halasa, Editor) Beirut: University Foundation for Studies, Publishing and Distribution.
Gaston Bashlar. (1992 AD). The Dialectic of Time (Volume 3). (Khalil Ahmad Khalil, Editor) Beirut: University Foundation for Studies, Publishing and Distribution.
Georgy Gatesch. (1990). Awareness and art. (Nawfal Nayouf, the translators) Kuwait: The World of Knowledge Series (64).
Ghalib Fadel Al-Muttalbi. (1978). Tamim dialect and its impact on unified Arabic. Baghdad: Publications of the Ministry of Culture and Arts.
Hanna Fakhoury. (1987 AD). History of Arab Literature (vol.12). Cairo: Police Library.
Hans Hermann Hobe. (2017 AD). A Short History of Humans, Progress and Decadence (Volume 1). (Haider Abdul Wahid Rashid, editor) Baghdad: Dar Sutour.
Ibn Manzoor, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Fadl Muhammad Ibn Makram al-Afriqi. (1414 AH). Lisan Al Arab (Volume 3). Beirut: Dar Sader.
Ibrahim Anees. (1952). Poetry Music (Volume 2). Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian Library.
Ibrahim Anees. (2003). In the Arabic dialects. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian Library.
Jamal Najm Al-Obeidi. (1969 AD). Al-Razz (his inception - his most famous poet). Baghdad: Al-Adeeb Al-Baghdadia Press.
Jan Cohen. (1986 AD). The Structure of Poetic Language (Vol.1 i). (Muhammad al-Wali, and Muhammad al-Omari, editors) Casablanca, Morocco: Toubkal Publishing House.
Jassim Muhammad Hussain. (2013 AD). Rizk to the Umayyad era. Journal of the College of Basic Education.
John Story. (2014). Cultural theory and popular culture (Volume 1). (Saleh Khalil Abu Asba, and Farooq Mansour, the translators) Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Tourism and Culture Authority / Kalima Project.
Karl Brockelmann. (No date). History of Arabic literature. (Abdel Halim Al-Najjar, Editor) Cairo: Dar Al Maaref in cooperation with the League of Arab States / Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science.
Mohammed Abed Al-Jabri. (1991 AD). Heritage and Modernity (Study and Discussions) (Volume 1). Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.
Mohammed bin Salam Al-Jamhi. (2001). Layers poets. Beirut: Publications of Muhammad Ali Baydoun.
Mohammed Omari. (No date). Poetry in the dialogue systems and prose. Retrieved from www.aljabriabed.net/n47_05umari.htm
Muhammad al-Sharqani al-Hasani. (No date). Poetic reception of ancient poets between perception and perception. Retrieved from www.aljabriabed.net/n47_07charkani.htm
Muhammad Boudhan. (No date). The concept of collective identity and its applications to the case of Morocco. Retrieved from https://www.hespress.com/writers/379695.html
Muhammad Hakim. (No date). Desolate of his family, Mahloub ... between self-experience and philosophical reflections. Al-Madaen Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.almadaen.com.sa/156631
Muhammad Weilal. (No date). Hair and nodal roots. Retrieved from www.alukah.net/literature_language/0/90292/
Nebras Hashem. (2014). 1. Informing the people of what happened to Baramkeh with Bani Abbas, famous for (Anecdotes of the Caliphs for the Ettledi) in light of cultural criticism, a doctoral thesis submitted to the Council of the College of Education at the University of Karbala. Karbala, Iraq: unpublished.
Philip Hitti. (1952 AD). History of the Arabs (lengthy) (vol.1 i). (Dr. Edward Gerji, and Dr. Gabriel Jabbour, editors) Beirut: Dar Al Kashaf for Publishing, Printing and Distribution.
Qudamah bin Jaafar. (1980). Prose Criticism. Beirut, Lebanon: House of Scientific Books.
Roger Fowler. (2012). Linguistic Criticism (Volume 1). (Afaf Al-Batayneh, the translators) Beirut: Arab Organization for Translation.
Roman Capson. (1988). Poetic Issues (Volume 1). (Muhammad Al-Wali, and Mubarak Hanoun, the editors) Casablanca, Morocco: Toubkal Publishing House.
Sabah Atiwi, and Muhammad Manadil Abbas. (2018). Unmeasured poetic witness to it in the era of protest. Journal of the College of Basic Education for Educational and Human Sciences (41).
Saeed Al-Ghanmi. (1999). Existence, Time, and Narration (The Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur) (Volume 1). (Saeed Al-Ghanmi, the translators) Beirut: Arab Cultural Center.
Saleh Ahmad Al-Ali. (2003 AD). Ancient History of the Arabs and the Prophetic Mission (History of the Arabs and Islam Series) (Volume 2). Beirut: The Publications Company for Distribution and Publishing.
Shawky is a guest. (1988). Chapters on Poetry and Its Criticism (Volume 3). Cairo: House of Knowledge.
Sri Taher Al-Jubouri. (2013). The anonymous poetic grammatical witness who says in Sharh Ibn Aqil in the two chapters of the novice and its Nawasikh and its effect on the grammatical rule. Professor Magazine (300).
Tony Bennett, and others. (2010). New idiomatic keys (Glossary of Culture and Society Terms) (Volume 1). (Saeed Al-Ghanmi, the translators) Beirut: Arab Organization for Translation.
Tzvetan Todorov. (2009 AD). Common Life (General Anthropological Research) (Volume 1). (Munther Ayashi, Editor) Beirut: Kalima and the Arab Cultural Center.
Copyright (c) 2021 Nibras Hashim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.