The Iraqi countryside in a novel (Exceeded border)
A study in the light of the critical approach
The novel was generally distinguished from other literary arts in its connection with the living reality as an imaginative practice that relies on political, economic, social, intellectual and cultural references and as a crucial tool in reading cultural references and dive deep into reality. As every novelist has a vision to embody this reality. As every novelist has a vision to embody this reality. The novel of ("Exceeded border by Hammed Al-Kafa’i) is a considered a fertile field for presenting social issues in their apparent structure and revealing the cultural patterns behind them which lies in its deep structure. The novel here moves its characters in its imaginary world in a way that it becomes more capable of adaptation and crystallization of (cultural statements) that control the behaviour of characters, develop the narrative event and monitor personality transformations in rural society.
The pattern of (class disparity) is dominates the joints of social life in the Iraqi countryside, as (AL-Saied) *4 enjoy those whose belongs by descent or race to the prophet Mohammed (Salaa Allah Ealayh Wasalam) *1 with enjoy special privileges not available to a (commoners) which reinforces the idea of class disparity in the Iraqi countryside. Within a male society in which the man imposed his control with strict provisions, the material and civil rights of women were lost and turned into a means and a tool to be to be exchanged according to the map of male interests, between a minor girl who is forced to marry under the saying (Kisma)*2 and another confiscates her freedom to choose her life partner and she is forced to marry her cousin under the saying (Al-Nahwa)*3 , and another is forcing her to stop her social life and cancel her feelings if her husband dies under the saying (loyalty to the husband after his death) and other sayings that tightened the noose on women in all their forms.
On the level of religious belief, the novel is full of many signals that reveal the deep structure of the rural community that affects its behaviour, so it floats on the surface of the outward structure in the narrative context to describe some life practices as in the saying (intercession) that explains many behavioural practices that seem ambiguous in relation to the other, those who are outside the Shiite sect or belief as well as the say (Divine Punishment) by which some behaviours are interpreted according to religious beliefs, in addition to the special immunity granted to the (AL-Saied) this culture, which prevails, represents the first line of defence that puts them under protection from anything. The saying (Al-Barakah) *5 comes to give them some privileges that guarantee them to stay at the top of the social ladder.
*1 (Salaa Allah Ealayh Wasalam): Means Blessings and peace be upon the Prophet Muhammad.
*2Kisma: It means that some Arab societies force the girl to marry under certain customs called Kisma.
*3Al-Nahwa: means that the girl is forced to marry a cousin under certain norms called Al-Nahwa.
*4Al-Sayed: It is believed that his lineage belongs to the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.
*5Al-Barakah: it means granting gentlemen a blessing to people some privileges that put them on top of the social ladder.
The Holy Quran
(Exceeded border) - Hamid Al-Kafa'i / ed1, (2014), Mesopotamia House, Baghdad.
Al-Aqalam Journal / its' Cultural Intellectual Quarterly to Stand Outside the Cultures, 1st issue (Jan/ Feb/ Mar), (2009): Western Cultural Criticism and Arab Modernity - Muhannad Tariq Najm
Al-Chibayish / anthropological study of a village in the marshes of Iraq - Shaker Mustafa Salim / ed2nd, Al-Ani Press, Baghdad, (1970).
Cultural anthropology / cultural anthropology – Dr. Ibrahim Nasser / Cooperative Printing Press Workers Association, The University of Jordan, )1982(.
Cultural Criticism - Abdullah Al-Qathami / Arab Cultural Center, Beirut, ed3rd, (2005).
Culture and Society - Prof. Dr. Samir Ibrahim Hassan, Dar Al-Fikr, Damascus/Syria, Ed1st,) 2007(.
Durra of diver in the illusions of isotropic - Qassem bin Ali Al-Hariri /Investigation by: Arafat Matrouhi, Books Cultural Foundation, Beirut - Lebanon, (1998).
Hereafter homes and luxury demands -Sheikh Abbas Qummi / Arabization and investigation of Mr. Yassin Al-Mousawi, Islamic Publishing Foundation, Qom, ed1st., (1419 AH).
Purity and danger, Mary Douglas / T: Adnan Hassan, Dar Al-Mada for Culture and Publishing, Damascus, ed1st, (1995).
Religious Beliefs in Ancient Iraq - Dr. Sami Saeed Al-Ahmad / Dar of General Cultural Affairs, Baghdad, ed1st, 1988.
Sahih Al-Jami` Al-Sagheer wa zyadatah, Nasir al-Albani Abu Abd al-Rahman Mamd Nasir al-Din ibn al-Hajj Noah bin Najati bin Adam al-Ashqurdi al-Albani (deceased: 1420 AH), publisher of the Islamic Office.
Signs Systems in Language, Literature and Culture /Entrance Alyalsamutiqia - Seza Kassem and Nasr Hamid Abizaid / Dar Elias, Cairo.
Social Anthropology - Abd Ali Salman / Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research - Salah al-Din University, Mosul University Press.
Sociology of literature - studying the literature event in the light of sociology - Qusay Al Hussein / Dar Al-Bahaar, Beirut, 2009.
Tayf Marx - Jacques Derrida / T: Munther Ayyash, Dar Al Fikr - Syria, Ed1st, (2000).
The Aesthetic and intellectual controversy - Muhammad bin Laki al-Lushi / Arab Expansion Foundation, Literary Club in Hail, Beirut, ed1st, (2010).
The historical concept of the issue of women - Aziz Al-Sayed Jassim / Cultural Affairs for Publishing, Baghdad, ed1st, (1986).
Totem and Tabu - Sigmund Freud / T: Bu Ali Yassin, Dar Al-Hiwar, Syria, ed1st., (1983).
Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Hussein Jar-Allah
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.