The French Colonial Strategy in the Algerian Desert
The French colonial expansion in the Algerian desert is considered a pivotal point in the modern history of that area. This is mainly because the ultimate goal of the French was to separate north Algeria from the southern provinces. This explains placing the south under a special military administration, which served other colonial purposes such as facilitating the expansion into West Africa, and linking the various French colonies in the region even though the geopolitical context of the area did not support such tactics.
This paper reviews the European, and particularly the French, exploratory, political, economic and missionary ventures in the Algerian deserts both before and after the French colonization. It also discusses the colonial and strategic motives for the French attempts to dominate this particular area as well as the stages, characteristics, and impact of this expansionist venture.
The researchers propose that at present, France still adopts the same practice of using the anthropological, natural, and economic environment of any given state in order to achieve its political and economic goals.
The paper concludes that the French administration was certain that its existence in Algeria, and its ability to hold on to its colonies in West and Sub-Saharan Africa, was determined by its dominance of the Algerian desert. In addition, this paper proposes that contemporary French foreign policy towards these African states has remained significantly unchanged.
Khleifi (Abd al-Qadir), (2001 AD), Sheikh Bou-amama Division in the Great South, Journal of Prince Abdul Qadir University, vol.10, Dar Al-Baath, Constantine.
Abbas (Abdullah), (2001 AD), The civilizational role of the TUAT region and its effects in the countries of Western Sudan between the two centuries (15-16 AD), Master Thesis, University of Algiers, Department of History, University of Algiers.
Abdullah (Abd Al-Razzaq), (1999 AD), Sufi Orders in the African Continent, Cairo: Dar Al-Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution.
Abu Imran (Sheikh), (1995 AD), “Charles de Foucauld in Tamanrasset (1905-1916)”, Al-Asala, Algeria.
Ahmed (Abdel Aziz), (PT), Our Sahara in the Face of Colonialism, Dar Al-Rehab, Algeria.
Ahmed (Mourad), (1959 AD), “Algeria on the way to independence, (the anniversary of the occupation of Algeria)”, Da`wah al-Haqq, Vol. 10, Ministry of General Endowments, Far Morocco.
Al-Aboudi (Abdel-Kadhim), (2000 AD), Rabi` Reggan and France's nuclear crimes in the Algerian desert, Oran, Dar Al-Gharb for publication and distribution.
Al-Arabi (Ismail), (1983), The Sahara Desert and its Shores, B. T, Algeria, The National Book Foundation.
Al-Ashraf (Mustafa), (1983), Algeria. The nation and society, see: Hanafi bin Isa: The National Book Foundation.
Al-Asthari (Abu Al-Qasim Ibrahim Al-Karkhi), (1927 AD), Pathways of the Kingdoms (Book of Regions Pictures), Braille Press, London.
Al-Fa'ouri (Daoud Ali Fadel), (1989 AD), Lectures on the Civilization of the Islamic World, Jordan: Dar Al-Fikr for Publishing and Distribution.
Al-Hefnawi (Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad), (1991 AD), Introducing the successor to the men of the predecessors, (b i), vol.1, according to: Muhammad Raouf al-Qasimi, Algeria: Mouffem for publication
Al-Seddik (Haj Ahmed), (2005 AD), Cultural History of the Touat Region, Publications of the Directorate of Culture, Algeria.
Also review, Général O. MEYNIER, (1955).( Sahara et Eurafrique dans la stratégie mondiale ), in Cahiers Charles de Foucauld, vol. 39, 3èm trimestre.
Amiraoui (Hamida) and others, (2004), French Policy in the Algerian Sahara, Dar Al-Hoda, Algeria.
Amirawi (Ahmed), (2004 AD). From the modern history of Algeria, Dar El Hoda, Algeria.
Amirawi (Hmida), (2001 AD), from the Historical Encounters, Dar Al-Baath, Algeria.
Andre.(Labarthe).( 1957). Document Sur Lepertel Du Saharo.
Augustin (B) ,( 1900). Et, Lacroix, Histoire De La Pénétration Sankarienne, Alger
Author (Anonymous), (1901 AD), Ticket of Forgetting in the News of the Kings of Sudan, Paris, ed. Hoodas.
Awad (Saleh), (1992 AD), The Battle of Islam and the Crusades in Algeria, Part 2, 2nd Edition, Algeria: Dar Dahlab.
Bernard (Simiot), (, juillet 1951). Il faut "nationaliser" le Sahara , in Hommes et Mondes, n° 60
Bouaziz (Yahya), (1980 AD), The Algerian Revolutions in the 19 and 20 CE, Constantine: Dar Al-Baath
Bouaziz (Yahya), (1997), “Two New Documents on the Struggle of Al-Sharif Muhammad Bin Abdullah”, Al-Thaqafa, No. 33, Algeria.
Bouaziz (Yahya), (1999 AD), with the history of Algeria in national and international forums, Algeria: Dr. M.J.
Brosselard.( 1889). Les Deux Missions Flatters Au Pays Des Touarg Azedjer Et Hoggar, Ed, , Librairie Furme, Paris.
Cf. Marc-Robert Thomas, (1960). Sahara et Communauté, P.U.F, Paris.
Chaoui abdesselem , les marabouts vu par les explorateurs du 19 eme siècle (mémoire de maitrise) Lille , France 1991-1992.
Charles (André Julian), (1978 AD), History of North Africa, T: Muhammad Al-Mizali, Al-Bashir Ben Salama, Tunisian Publishing House, Tunisia.
Comerrin (R.), (1965), «Fulani», Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Leiden, E.J.Brille, V2,
Davidson, (1963), Africa Under New Lights, tr. M . Ahmed, Beirut.
Dhehni (Ilham Muhammad Ali), (1988 AD), The Jihad of the Islamic Kingdoms in West Africa against the French Colonialism, Riyadh: Mars Publishing House.
Diab (Ahmed Ibrahim), (1981 AD), Glimpses of Modern African History, Mars Publishing House.
Emile BELIME, (1955).Gardons l’Afrique, Col. Faits et documents, Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris.
Emile BELIME, (mai 1951) Avenir de l’Union Française), in Hommes et Mondes, Paris, n°58,
Etudes Sociales Nord Africaines, (septembre -octobre 1954). L’avenir humain du Sahara, Cahiers Nord Africains n° 41, , 51
Ferdinand(Camille Dreyfus) and (André) Tertel (1902).Grande Encyclopedie. Tome.xxix . Paris
Halimi (Abdelkader), (1968 AD), Algeria's Natural, Human, and Economic Geography, Bureau of University Publications, Algeria.
Hallaq (Hassan), (2000 AD), History of the Islamic Peoples, 1st Edition, Beirut: Dar Al-Gharb Al-Islami.
Hommes et Mondes, n°s: 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 1951
Ibn Battuta (Muhammad Ibn Abdullah), (2017 AD), Masterpieces of the Principals in the Strange Things and Wonders of Travel (Ibn Battuta Journey), Hindawi Foundation, United Kingdom.
Ismail (Al-Arabi), (1983), The Sahara Desert and Its Beaches, The National Company for Publishing and Distribution, Algeria.
Jean (Loyrette) et Jean (Godrd), (1959). Sahara, Organization Politique et Administrative, Droit Pétrolier, Régime des Investissement, Paris, Société d’Etudes et de Publication Orient, , 3 classeurs, class I.
Jilali (Sari), (1983), The Role of the Environment in Algeria, 1st Edition, The National Company for Publishing and Distribution, Algeria.
Kaddah (Naim), (BT), The Civilization of Islam and the Civilization of Europe in Western Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2nd Edition, Algeria: UNT.
Lachaire ( Franis) ,( 1959). Droit D'outre – Mer , This , Paris.
Le capitaine bagolle ; (1887) .le Sahara d’Ouargla de oued Mia a l’oued igharghar .Alger.
Le Monde .14 et 15 Février. 1960
Max) Marchand( )1957( .Histoire Abrégée de L’Algérie Partie Sahara . Mars.
Mayassi (Ibrahim), (1996 AD), The expansion of the French colonialism in the southwest of Algeria (1881-1912), Algeria: Publications of the National Museum of the Mujahid.
Michel Mourre .(1986). Dictionnaire encyclopédique d’histoire..8V. I3 (découverte(. Paris.
Morris (Dolphus), (1984 AD), in the Islamic Encyclopedia, Part 5, (SZ), Led.
Moulay El-Tohamy (Getawy), (2006 AD), He drew attention to the looting, vandalism and destruction that occurred in Adrar bay during the colonial occupation, A.N.E.P publications, Algeria.
Muhammad (Awad), (1965 AD), Northern Sudan and its tribes, Cairo.
Muhammad Al-Saleh (Hutiah), (2007 AD), TUAT and Al-AZAWAD, Part 1, Arab Book House, Algeria.
Muhammad Fadel (Ali Bari) - and Said (Ibrahim), (2007 AD), Muslims in West Africa, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya.
Ould Al-Salem (may God protect him), (2008 AD), the Mauritanian Civil Society (1591-1898), Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.
Paul (Dames), (1982 AD), African Civilizations, 2nd ed., Tr. Nassim Nasr, Beirut: Oweidat Publications.
Philip (Rafla), (1965 AD), Political Geography of Africa, Arab Consciousness Library, Cairo.
Roukoz (Yusef), (1986 AD), Black Africa, Politics and Civilization, University Studies Foundation, Beirut.
Saadallah (Abu al-Qasim), (1992 AD), the Algerian National Movement, 4th Edition, C2, Dar Al-Gharb Al-Islami, Beirut.
St- Arnaud,( 1978). Les Premières Années De L'Algérie Française, Le Ffant , R. Tours.
The National Center for Studies and Research in the National Movement and the Revolution of the First of November (M.W.D.T.T.H.O), (2000 AD), French Nuclear Experiments in Algeria, Algeria, Center Publications.
Yahya (Jalal), (1959 AD), French Policy in Algeria, House of Knowledge, Cairo.
Zabadia (Abdelkader), (1989 AD), Arab civilization and European influence in Western Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, the National Book Foundation, Algeria.
Zanati (Muhammad Salam), (1998 AD), Islam and Tribal Traditions in Ifriqiya, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya for Publishing and Distribution, Egypt.
Copyright (c) 2021 Khireddine Youssef Chatra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.