The Psychological Factors Influencing the EFL University Students' Development of Grammar Knowledge within the Online Discussion Atmospheres

  • Najla Hais AbdulGhafoor Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Anbar
  • Ala'a Ismael Challob Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Anbar
Keywords: EFL, Online Discussion, Grammatical Knowledge, Psychological Factors


Within the online learning atmospheres, language learners may confront certain obstacles in learning English grammar. Those obstacles may be associated to psychological factors which represent influential barriers on developing the grammatical knowledge of the EFL learners at the university level. Thus, the aim of the current research is to find out the exact psychological factors that influence the students' grammar knowledge. To achieve that aim, a close-ended questionnaire was designed to investigate the students' responses toward the psychological factors that can influence their grammatical knowledge. The sample of the research was the Iraqi EFL university students at the second year of the academic year (2020/2021) in English Department at the University of Anbar. At the first course, the sample of the participants (n=33) was exposed to online discussion learning activities for thirteen weeks to learn English grammar. At the end of the course, they were asked to respond to the items of the questionnaire. Depending on: T-test formula for one sample; weighted mean and percentage weight of the tenth items of the psychological domain, the collected data were analyzed. Results showed that the priority of some psychological factors like: anxiety, aptitude, attitude, and motivation were prominent and affective within the online discussion environments.

Accordingly, these factors are necessary to be explored and governed within the language learning process in general and online learning in particular to get better students' performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Agha, I. & Al Ustaz, M. (2004). An Introduction to Educational Research Design. (1st Ed.). Gaza: Al Mequdad Press.

Ameto, P. (1988). Making It Happens: Interaction in the Second Language Classroom. New York: Longman.

Brown, D. 1994. (3rd Ed.) Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (4th edition). New York: Longman, Inc.

Budianto, L. (2011). Students' Psychological Factors in SLA: A dillema for teachers of English. LiNGUA: Jurnal IImu Bahasa dan Sastra, 5(1).

Fatima, S. (2014). An Intercultural Interaction Model: Acculturation Attitudes in Second Language Acquisition. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. Vol. 1, No. 1.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gardner, R. and W. Lambert (1972) Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning. Rowley, Ma.: Newbury House.

Gass, S., & Torre, M. (2005). Attention when? An Investigation of the Ordering Effect of Input and Interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 1-13.

Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (1994). Second Language Acquisition- An Introduction Course. USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132.

Irizarry, R. (2002). Self-efficacy and motivation effects on online psychology student retention. USDLA Journal, 16(12), 55-64.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second Language Acquisition & Second Language Learning. Pergamon Press Inc.

Long, M. (1989). Task, Group, and Task-Group Interactions. University of Hawaii's Working Papers in ESL, vol.8.pp.1-26.

Mohideen, M. (2001). Personality Factors in Second Language Learning. Muslim Education Quarterly. Vol. 18, No. 3.

Maclntyre, P. D. & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 4l, 85-l17.

O'Brien, M. C. (1977). Motivation : A Historical Prospective. In M. Burt, H. Dulay and Finocchiaro, View Point on English as A Second Language.

Oller, J. (1977) "Attitude variables in second language learning." In M. Burt, H. Dulay, and M. Finocchiaro (Eds.), Viewpoints on English as a Second Language. New York: Regents, pp. 172-184.

Richards, J.C. and Schmidt, R. (2002) Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics (3rd Edition). Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Satar, M. (2013). Multimodal Language Learner Interactions via desktop videoconferencing within a Framework of Social Presence: Gaze. ReCALL, 25(1), 122-142.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Slameto, 1988. Belajar dan Factor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhinya. Jakarata: Rineka Cipta.

Smith, A. N. (1975). The Importance of Attitude in Foreign Language Learning. Forum Journal, Vol.13, No. 1&2.

Tabbert, R. (1984). Parsing the Question "Why Teach Grammar". The English Journal. 73(8): 38-42.

Trizarry, R. (2002). Self-efficacy and motivation effects on online psychology student retention. USDLA Journal, 16(12) , 55-64.

Yamada, M., & Akahori, K. (2009). Awareness and performance through self- and partner's image in videoconferencing. CALICO Journal, 27(1), 1-25.

How to Cite
AbdulGhafoor, N., & Challob, A. (2022). The Psychological Factors Influencing the EFL University Students’ Development of Grammar Knowledge within the Online Discussion Atmospheres. Al-Adab Journal, 2(140), 17-32.
English linguistics and literature