Religious extremism

its causes and ways to confront it

  • Asawer abdulhusain abdulsada University of Baghdad – college of education for women – social work department
Keywords: Religion, extremism

Abstract

 The twentieth century witnessed the emergence of many religious associations and movements, both moderate and extremist, and the truth is that these movements did not arise out of a vacuum, as several political, intellectual, social and economic factors combined that led to the emergence of these groups as a result of feeling the need for the need to adopt a new method for reform and renewal,  Therefore, from time to time, the religious leader who tries to gather the youth around him appears and begins to teach them the principles of the correct religion, and directs them to how to reform the individual, strengthen the ummah, and fair governance. This is why the youth who belong to these groups have sweeping religious tendencies and here violence appears as a tool to carry out orders as well as the wrong understanding of some orders.  And religious principles according to the purposes of the religious leaders, and friction begins between these groups and the state's political apparatus. Religious groups or religious movements, then, is a name given to each group that tries to take on for itself an independent entity and different in behavior from what people have understood in terms of traditions and customs, and the emergence of these groups in Islamic societies is a necessity imposed by the nature of the Islamic religion, where the order of good and forbidding the evil, as well as imposed by economic conditions Social, cultural and political societies go through.

 These religious groups often join themselves around religious standards and principles, and despite the participation of these groups with other groups in terms of the nature of the organization, they have different goals and may have a set of different organizational standards as well.  However, religious groups, like any other groups, resolve differences in interpreting and implementing their goals, standards, and roles, and they may tend to adapt or modify these differences, norms, and roles to suit other groups.  When the size of the group or religious organization increases, the degree of agreement among members about goals and standards decreases to a large degree. ‏According to the understanding of these movements, and in order to understand the causes of the emergence of violence and determine the extent of its impact on the kinetic thought of the Islamic movements, we will try to investigate the reasons behind its appearance on a pattern of behavior by groups that were supposed to be an example of tolerance, forgiveness and mercy because they are the product of religious values ​​characterized by their high humanity, but before that we emphasize  The main reason behind religious extremism is an ideological reason, so the other reasons are auxiliary and secondary reasons. We do not deny the role of the standard of living for members of Islamic movements, for example, in practicing violence, but it is not a major reason. Otherwise, the former Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden is a known billionaire.  Most of the members of the Islamic movements belong to the middle class, and the same is true for educational levels. (Raid Al-Banna), the Jordanian who led the bombing of the Iraqi city of Hilla, was a graduate of the Faculty of Law and was very comfortable and lived for a period of time in America, and Omar Ahmed Abdullah, who led the bombing of a theater in the State of Qatar He was an electronic engineer and earned a high monthly salary.  Also, the remaining causes outside the circle of thought and belief are secondary causes in comparison to the main cause, and this statement is confirmed by statistical data and field studies conducted on different samples of members of extremist Islamic movements and it has been shown that the individuals of these movements have good academic and scientific levels, and most of them have obtained academic certificates that ranged from  Between middle school and doctoral degrees, a level that is supposed to provide a fair amount of awareness that prevents the storming of death and risking lives, while the reality is otherwise, as many suicide operations have been carried out by individuals with advanced academic degrees and distinctive job positions, which prompts us to search for other reasons for this phenomenon, and we should study  The ideological understanding that drives them to the storm of death and asceticism in life despite the luxury that these young people enjoy.

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Published
2021-03-15
How to Cite
abdulhusain abdulsada, A. (2021). Religious extremism. Al-Adab Journal, 1(136), 503-518. https://doi.org/10.31973/aj.v2i136.1102
Section
Sociology