Al-Adab Journal (ISSN: 1994473X) <p>Background and Perspections of AL-Adab Journal Al-Adab jornal is a scientific academic and accredited journal of the College of Arts , University of Baghdad . It is edited regularly within a specific time . Four issues per year in March , June , September and December . The first issue was edited in March 1956 and was entitted " Al-Alum and Al-Adab College Journal " because at that time the journal was edited by the college of sciences and Arts before the splitting of the college into two colleges : College of arts and college of sciences . The publication of the journal under such title was continued , in each year one issue was edited . A ccordingly , the first issue was published in 1956 , the second issue was in 1957 and the third in 1958 . when the college of arts has become an independent college , i.e. after its splitting from the college of sciences , the first issue has been edited under the title of " Al-Adab Journal " in 1959 . the publication of the Journal has been continued till the oppressive blockade on Iraq causing the journal to stop for five years . After this compulsory stoppage the publication of the journal was resumed in 1990 . in order to achieve its goals in publishing the scientific and the intellectual products of researchers , learners and thinkers . It can be noted that the goals of Al-Adab journal extend to include many researchers and learners outside the College of Arts ( from other scientific institutions ) as well as researchers outside Iraq . In fact , the editorial board aims at making fruitful interaction and deepening the intellectual , scientific and cultural perspectives . Al-Adab journal is specified for publishing the researches and studies related to different and various human fields like Arabic and English linguistics , Criticism , Literature , History , Geography , Psychology , philosoghy and Anthropology . the researches prepared to be edited are submitted to an accurate linguistic and scientific evaluation by sending them to specified experts to make sure of the validity of the research topics and contents and then the researches are evaluated to be published or not in the journal . Thus , many ersearchers have great confidence in publishing in this journal due to its distinctive status in the Iraqi educational prospect and also due to its connection with the college of arts – university of Baghdad , which is know by its rich inheritage represented by its immortal symbols including great professors , scientists and thinkers , And this gives the journal a distinctive status as an intellectual andscientific stand for all sciences and this leads to deepen the educational interaction and communication within human and culture perspectises . Accordingly , researchers will get great benefit in presenting varions opinions and discussions to develop their abilities in many fields of knowledge.</p> Baghdad University- College of Arts en-US Al-Adab Journal (ISSN: 1994473X) 1994-473X <p>All copyrights&nbsp; are reserved for the AL-Adab&nbsp; Journal. It is prohibited to print, copy, translate or re compose the journal whether completely or partly. Recording on cassettes, saving to computer or programming on optical discs are also prohibited without a written consent of the publisher, otherwise legal prosecution will take place by the Iraqi judicature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Editor in chief</p> The Absentee’s Woman (Novel) <p>The semiotic trend of recent critique took a wide range of interest by critics and readers alike, especially after the widespread that it witnessed upon publishing the work of Grimace and its applicability to literary and non-literary texts. This has widened the circle of interest, and thus we chose the novel ‘The Absentee’s Women’ by the Iraqi novelist Mahdi Essa Alsaqr to be a sample for applying the study, which takes the semiotic approach through the use of the procedural mechanisms of Paris School of Semiotics and the critique viewpoint of its founder Grimas.</p> <p>&nbsp;This study starts with an introduction that gives a background for semiotics and its impact on critique to clarify some of certain issues such as the disagreement among critics about its origins definition. Then, the study is divided into three sections: the rhetorical level, the narrative level and depth level. Then comes the conclusion that is about the most important outcome of the study. Finally, we have a list of sources and references.</p> إشراق كامل ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 1 20 Elegies in Abo Tammam’s Poetry to Humaid Al-Tosi and his son Mohamed <p>The study tackles two of the most important poetic elegies to two leaders of the Abbasid Era, Hamid Al-Tusi and his son Mohammed, written by Ali bin Jiblah Al-Akook and Abo Tammam Al-Ta'i. These two elegies are considered the eyes of Arabic poetry.&nbsp; The study considers the pure formations of the image and rhythm and aesthetics in these two poems, hence the title of this study.</p> <p>We thought that the study plan would be based on two sections after the introduction, which was entitled "Lamentations in the Abbasid Era" in which we talked about the concept of lamentation in general. Then, we briefly define the personalities of the Abbasid leaders, Hamid Al-Tusi and his son Muhammad. The first section considers the aesthetics of the picture and its images in the two poems.&nbsp; The research concludes with the most important findings.</p> أركان رحيم جبر جعفر فرحان عذيب ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 21 46 THE PHENOMENON OF RHYTHM IN THE POETRY OF IBN SHAMS AL-ASADI <p>The study of literary heritage is a step to revive this heritage and build for the interpretation of the civilization of the Arab nation, as this literary heritage is rich with writers and poets. Among those poets is Amr ibn Shams Al-Asadi, whose poetry has characteristics that deserves studying, hence the title “The Poetic Language of at Amr ibn Shams Al-Asadi”. The study includes an introduction to concept of rhythm and the three sections. The first section is entitled rhythm in Al-Asadi’s poetry. The second section is about rhyme in Al-Asadi’s poetry. The third section is types of rhyme in Al-Asadi’s poetry. The study concludes with an account of rhyme in Al-Asadi’s poetry with the poet’s sense and style that he uses to express the soul’s tranquility, disturbance, hopes and sorrow.</p> حازم فاضل محمد (البارز) العبودي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 47 66 'The Color imagery in the poetry of Fityan Al-Shaghuri <p>Colors, shapes and types are divine miracles. This variation in colors in the universe and nature shows the differences in the creation of all the creatures. These features were reflected in great presence as well as other sources that manifest in women, wine, gray hair, wars and their tools in the poetic imagination of the Fityan Al- Shaghury. Therefore, this poet produced the finest poetic color images and showed these colors beautifully through symbol and inspiration as a sign of meanings that paints beautiful meanings that the readers agrees with it as being is familiar in the lives of people. Other mentions of the poet manifest in the paradoxes of artistic images of beautiful colors as the point where the base of the rhetorical styles that are combined to form these images, especially metaphor, anaphylaxis, antonomasia, implicit metaphor and diagnostic and visual visions, that had a clear effect in his images, which contribute to the level of rhythmic activity in the creative color imagery.</p> خلود هاشم جوحي الوائلي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 67 88 Alternation Phenomenon in the Use of Prepositions and Conjunctions in AL- Anaam and AL-Araf Quranic Suras <p>In most cases, the Holy Quran uses language features in the way that contrary to the common standard language to draw the reader's attention. Therefore, we have examined one of the techniques that have been frequent in the Quranic text and its purpose by tackling alternation phenomenon. Alternation means using a word (noun, verb, preposition) interchangeably with another word that is close to its meaning. However, we select alternation of prepositions and conjunctions and we have examined the idea of interchange of prepositions in the Quranic text in order to understand the meaning. The aim of this study is to examine prepositions interchangeability to express the main meanings of each of the items and study modes of prepositions syntactically. This was done through analyzing the main structures and meanings of the structure. The results suggest that preposition interchangeability occurred more in these two sample Quranic verses. Then, the preposition "lam" is repeated frequently. Hence, the high frequency has made this phenomenon a style in these two verses. However, as for conjunctions, we recognized that interchangeability in “fa” and “thomma” was more frequent because of the context in which they are used and this has to change the meaning. This study was conducted using the analytical descriptive method.</p> جواد محـمد زاده صلاح الدين عبدی ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 89 118 The Creeds’ Controversy <p>Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, and prayers and peace be upon the Prophet Mohammed and his household and companions. &nbsp;&nbsp;The doctrine has a central impact on the building of the individual and the community in view of the behavior of the individual and the community. This is the belief: If it is corrupt, it will show the acts of the believers with disadvantages and harms. Hence the need for religious education, and there are various means and ways to pass the doctrine to the minds of its believers. Methods and techniques based on modernity and after following the method of focusing on heritage while preserving the image of the discourse is consistent with contemporary language, and I chose the last type in my research, which relied on the knowledge of the Messenger of Allah whom Allah has given one thousand doors of knowledge. I have focused on Imam Ali’s <em>Nahju al-Balagha</em> as a research sample. Accordingly I divided the research into sections. First: the proper comprehension of the doctrine. &nbsp;Second: the problem of embodiment, and third: the issues of the angels. The paper concluded with a conclusion and a list of sources, and thanks to Allah the god of everything.</p> ضحى علي حسين ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 119 138 Japan in the Islamic sources <p>The paper deals with one of the problems that are summarized by the sources of the Islamic heritage, which require reconsideration and recitations of the historical texts in order to settle their contents. The problem of this paper is based on the location of the Wak Wak, which remained vague and ambiguous even after being subjected to research and investigation of historians and scholars. Therefore, this does not prevent researching this problematic issue&nbsp; according to the logic of historical treatment as long as previous researches did not provide a decisive opinion in this regard. Depending on some data tried to examine the weight of one of the hypotheses that go to these islands is a description of what is now called Japan.</p> نبراس فوزي جاسم ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 139 150 The impact of the Revolt of Ali Pasha Jumblatt on the Migration of the Jumblattians to Mount Lebanon <p>&nbsp; In this research, an attempt was made to shed light on the reasons and motives that led to this transformation and the transition to Lebanon through a large migration of this family, which was certainly not the only one that migrated from Aleppo to Mount Lebanon but was followed by other families condemning it with allegiance to the Jumblatt family. Significant political, economic and social influence in Aleppo before emigration. The research will show how the rebellion of its leader Prince Ali Pasha Jumblatt on the Ottoman state and his attempt to ally with Florence and with the participation of the Prince of Mount Lebanon, Prince Fakhruddin II, and how he succeeded in the beginning of the era of the acquisition of large areas of the Levant and then end to exile, The Jumblatt family and its allies to emigrate to Lebanon, where they found a safe haven to save them from the humiliation that had afflicted them As a result of their Amir rebellion.</p> محمود صالح سعيد ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 151 174 The Economic Implications of the Nazi Concentration Camps <p>The research is intended to reassess the official narrative and the interpretive model produced by the Nuremberg Trials on the Nazi extermination of Jews, and to verify the extent of conformity between these claims and the actual historical reality of Nazi policies towards them, by providing a reading of the function of the concentration camps and their relationship to the supposed "genocide program" during the Second World war years. The research is divided into three section: First: Introduction to economic employment of concentration camps. The second was devoted to examining the function of the camps in the light of the forced labor program "Forced labor camps in the light of the economic requirements of the Nazi regime 1939-1941". While the third discussed the problem of the association of the camps with genocide, so came entitled "camps" genocide "problematic characterization and supposed function.</p> حيدر شاكر عبيد السلطاني ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 175 206 Joseph Stalin and his Political Activity in Russia 1899-1914 <p>The history of modern Russia is one of the most important topics in modern history due to the role of this central state in political changes in most historical periods. The character of Joseph Stalin was an important element in the development of communist thought in the history of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The rise of the communist movement in Russia, but the beginnings of that character was ambiguous because he was using more than the name of his political movements away from government control. Joseph Stalin was able to be the hidden arm of the success of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and reflected in his political activity during the period of study</p> نغم سلام ابراهيم ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 131 207 224 The political and scientific efforts of Imam Sanhoon and ibn al-Furat in the era of al-Aaghalyah State ( 184-296AH) <p>The establishment of the Aghlabid state (184-296 / 800-908) was closely linked to the chaos, sectarian strife, and revolts of the Arab and Berber armies. The efforts of the Aghlabid princes, who were able to establish a large military force of Westernized Berbers and worked on the recruitment of military personnel in the Algerian army enabled the Aghlabid to spread security&nbsp;and stability&nbsp;in the Lower Maghreb (Tunisia). The scientific movement witnessed a great prosperity since the capital of their state Kairouan, a pole of cultural culture in which the flags of their scientific and political status emerged, led by the Kairouan judge and Fath Sicilian Assad ibn al-Furat Combine science and science&nbsp;Jihad members and,&nbsp;for&nbsp;the sake&nbsp;of&nbsp;Allah and Imam Sahnoun bin Said&nbsp;,&nbsp;who was most famous scholars&nbsp;of&nbsp;Maliki in&nbsp;the&nbsp;Islamic Maghreb</p> سندس غني عريبي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 225 238 Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait 1990, A Historical Study through the Newspaper "Lewaa Al Sader" <p>The Iraqi-Iranian war resulted in many debts on Iraq, &nbsp;especially for Kuwait which supported Iraq financially and politically during the war. After the end of that war, &nbsp;Kuwait demanded the debts and also decided to increase its oil production which led to lower prices and a negative refections on the Iraqi economy. This urged the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein (1979-2003) to take an unthinkable decision to invade Kuwait by his forces on 2 August 199. Facing wide international condemnation, while the United States succeeded in mobilizing military forces in Saudi Arabia at the invitation from the latter, consisting of several countries that attacked Iraq and its military forces and liberated Kuwait on 27 February 1991. The Iraqi oppositions attitude towards the invasion and in particular the Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in Iraq was blaming both Iraq and Kuwait, &nbsp;as it opposed to the first and denounced the second for support Iraq during the Iraqi-Iranian war.</p> نبيل العلوي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 239 278 Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Optimism, Happiness and Wisdom <p>Wisdom is applying successful intelligence and creativity, values mediate them, for common good, by balancing among : personal interests, interpersonal interests and intrapersonal interests, through sort and long times, to accomplish balancing among : adapt with existence environment, shape this environment and select neo environment . This study attempt exploring it’s deep structure by identifying correlational and predictive relationships among Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Optimism, Happiness and Wisdom . 134 student complement CERQ-SV (Garnefski &amp; Kraaij 2006), LOT-R (Scheier, Carver &amp; Bridges 1994), HS (Springer &amp; Hauser 2006) and 3D-WS (Ardelt 2003). Results found out that most cognitive emotion regulation strategies are high, moderate optimism, moderate/ high happiness and moderate wisdom, negative correlations between negative strategies and happiness and wisdom, positive correlations between positive strategies and happiness and optimism, wisdom correlate positively with happiness and negatively with optimism, and, in predictive relationships, all three variables predict wisdom : strategies predict cognitive and affection wisdom, optimism predict cognitive and affection wisdom, and happiness predict cognitive, reflection and affection wisdom . These results suggest that the wisdom exist when us positive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, reduce optimism and actualizing meaning, goal,&nbsp; self-accept and positive relations .</p> لؤي خزعل جبر ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 279 302 Effect of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the Characteristics of Wave Patterns Affecting the Climate of Iraq <p>The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is an important climatic phenomenon. The phenomenon of NAO has a positive phase (positive pressure values) which becomes a negative phase (negative pressure values). The research concluded that the oscillation in its negative and the positive phases did not affect the frequency of trough and ridge and the number of days of duration and direction of its axes, did not show a certain trend in the repetition of wave characteristics, whether the negative or positive. However, there was a difference in the seasonal total of the troughs and ridges, which exceeded the frequency during the negative seasons, while the long waves and the system of trough + ridge were repeated between the negative and positive seasons. As for the number of days of survival, the number of days of survival was greater during the positive seasons and the fluctuations during the negative seasons.</p> بشرى احمد جواد ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 303 318 Efficiency of Al- Sabla Major Irrigation Project and its investments <p>The research deals with al-Sabila major irrigation project, which is one of the large projects that cover large areas of agricultural lands of al-Rifai Agriculture Division to the &nbsp;north of Dhi Qar province and south of Maysan. The total area of ​​agricultural land amounts to (324156 / dunums) of which (138127 / dunums) are suitable for agriculture whereas the area that is not suitable for agriculture is estimated (186029 / dunums). As the project provides water to agricultural lands located in the western side, the distance from the beginning of the boundary of the irrigation project to its end reaches a distance of 60 km. &nbsp;For this reason, I studied the project in three sections, the first dealt with the theoretical framework and the importance of the study area. &nbsp;The second section dealt with the natural elements of the study area, and the geographical study of the project, as well as the source of water and the slope of the land and the direction of the project rivulet, &nbsp;and the date of its establishment and stages of development and its branches. The third section addressed the water needs of the study area and the efficiency of the project, problems and solutions.</p> حسين كريم الساعدي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 319 352 إيكولوجية العشوائيات الحضرية في الجزائر <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the ecology of&nbsp; urban slums&nbsp; in the city of Skikda .</p> <p>Although these slums were established since the colonial era , yet their ecological development and conditions continued to be similar. This study showed that the expansion of SKIKDA slums areas followed a clear pattern , that they grew and expand with the growth of expanding of the city. The study also discovered that some ethnic groups and families occupy the city surrounding areas and establish the slums houses , and eventually become a local community characterized by ethnic behavior. The more the city expand, the more informal areas expand according to the logic of the response to the appropriate solutions for each. The slums in the city of Skikda are at least part of the development of the city since the late colonial period and the period of independence over the last 50 years. The results of the study &nbsp;also revealed the great dependence on the construction process in acquiring the field as a dominant strategy on family behavior, characterization of neighborhood relations within the house and the factors driving housing in slums areas fluctuate mainly between the problem of housing and personal reasons, both of which are linked on the basis that the narrowness of the family housing and the high degree of congestion leads&nbsp; to the&nbsp; leave of married children seeking private shelter. The acquisition &nbsp;of the urban area within the city is carried out through pockets that are out of sight and are located within the urban environment of the city. Based on the evidence and field data obtained through basic indicators to understand the reality highlighted by the slums of Skikda city, the study found a constant fact that the slum culture in Skikda is a behavior and practice through forms of tenure and adaptation patterns promoted by social upbringing with the characteristics of the random area. This culture has re-established the ingredients of producing and reproducing urban slums with all their ecological features.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Keywords</strong>: Urban,Slums,Ecology,SKIKDA.</p> Brahim Touhami رياض تومي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 353 372 10.31973/aj.v0i131.592 Natural and Cultural Heritage and its Tourism Importance in Maysan City, South Eastern Iraq <p>The data was collected through field surveys of natural, archaeological, and religious and heritage sites; as well as visiting of some government institutions to access reports and text available in their libraries. The study explains the importance of natural heritage, such as the presence of Hor Al- Huwaiza, one of the four components listed on the World Heritage List, because of the diverse natural ecosystems and richness of biodiversity, especially the existence of threatened species of exceptional global value. The presence of more than 440 sites of cultural or archaeological heritage, spread over all the districts and areas of Maysan province, which includes different periods of civilizations: The Stone ages, Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Achmainic, Firthic, Sasanian, and Islamic civilizations. Islamic Religious sites such as: Ali al-Gharbi, Ali al-Sharqi and Obaidullah ibn Ali. Christian sites such as Umm Al-Ahzan Church, Mar Youssef Church. &nbsp;Jewish sites such as Al- Uzair Prophet; Sabean in addition to many heritage sites. Tourism is one of the productive economic sectors that contribute to increasing local and national income. Therefore, sustainable tourism and ecotourism must be supported and promoted to create jobs and improve the living standards of the local population, by providing infrastructure and preparing plans and programs that develop ecotourism in Huwaiza and adjacent natural areas, religious and archaeological tourism, and other kinds of tourism in an attempt to sustain the elements of natural, cultural and religious heritage and provide employment opportunities for the local population.</p> عقيل عباس الزبيدي صفاقس قاسم هادي جاسب صالح المرسومي خضر عباس الكناني ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 373 400 (naptanu) Texts from the ancient Babylonian era <p>The themes of the texts varied in the cuneiform writings, especially the texts of the ancient Babylonian era. The texts of this era were rich in a variety of topics, including literary and religious subjects, as well as the economic field. This latter field is the focus of our research, which is based on the study of a series of cuneiform texts related to some types of meals or known food rations. In the Akkadian language <em>naptanu</em> meaning "share of food or meal", and in the literary meaning "banquet" or "luxury meal", corresponding in the Sumerian language Terms: NIG2.DU, KIN.SIG, BUR</p>  سعد سلمان فهد ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 401 414 Social Factors Affecting Joining Political Violence Groups An analysis of the role of the environment and the family <p><strong>Abstract</strong><strong>:</strong></p> <p>This study strives to uncover the most important and influential factors in the growing phenomenon of political violence in Egyptian society in the current period. The study was based on a qualitative sample of 50 members of the Jemaah Islamiyah Organization who were sentenced and are spending long periods of time in the state penal institutions. the study used the case study manual as a data collection tool. One of the most important discoveries of this study is the strength of the political factors on the social factors in the growing phenomenon of political violence in Egyptian society, where the state or the political system is the main engine of political violence by the organization of the Islamic Group in order to change and reform the state. The impact of peer groups on joining these groups is also strongly influenced by the effect of the family on the involvement of some members in political violence groups, but as a secondary factor its influence cannot be compared to the external factors of the political system - members of the organization - the peer group These results are consistent with the literature of political violence and many field studies on the subject.</p> أميمة محمد أبوالخير ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 415 446 10.31973/aj.v0i131.438 Interpretation of the Quran by the Quran in Adwaa al-Bayan wal Mizan <p>Belief in an approach stems from the full conviction of all the details of that chosen approach of interpretation, and definitely, it is one of the most complex interpretative steps. &nbsp;Here lies the importance of studying the various interpreters' approaches, each of which flows on the river of the Holy Quran and its grandeur and supremacy. But these approaches are too diverse to be fully understood. That is why the approach of interpreting the Quran by the Quran is selected. This is the interpretation of Sheikh Al-Chinguetti , known as <em>Adwaa al-Bayan wal Mizan</em> <em>in the Clarification of the Qur'an by the Qur'an</em> and the interpretation of Tabatabai known as the <em>Al-Mizan in the Interpretation of the Qur'an</em> by introducing the authors of both interpretations, clarifying their approaches, styles and their methods, comparing both interpretations through some examples of <em>ayas</em> &nbsp;interpreted according to the &nbsp;approach of &nbsp;the interpretation of the Holy Qur'an by the Quran.</p> عمر عبدالله نجم الدين الكيلاني ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 447 474 تأثیرپذیری قاصد از حافظ <p>Qasid was one of the poets who were influenced by the magical words of Hafiz, and under this influence a group of unforgettable romantic poems were produced by Qasid. The effect of Hafiz on Kasid’s poems is very obvious especially the figurative language and the concepts he used in his poems. Although Hafiz’s poems are full of literary beauty and imaginary images, the ghazal in kasid’s poem has another taste and beauty that no word can describe. In this research the impact of Hafiz on Qasid’s poem will be shown, leading to the conclusion that Qasid, despite all his dominance over the Persian language, &nbsp;had been deeply influenced by Hafiz’s thoughts and writings which he used to express different points and themes. In this way we can say that in Kurdish Literature, Qasid is considered pioneer of Hafiz’s followers of his time.</p>  جهاد شكري رشيد ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 501 530 La faculté articulatoire de l'apprenant irakien Dans une classe de français langue étrangère A l’université de Bagdad Etude comparative <p>This research speaks of the ability of Iraqi student in pronunciation. First we describe the alphabet of Arabic and French language, while showing the specificity of some Arabic sounds. The one that characterizes our learner and facilitates his learning of the French language by an easy pronunciation of French sounds</p> Jinan mohammed watheq Ismael AL-OBAIDI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 1 16 ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ ЛЕКСИКА КАК РЕЗУЛЬТАТ ВЗАИМНЫХ КОНТАКТОВ ЯЗЫКОВ <p>В статье сделана попытка проанализировать юридическую лексику как результат взаимных контактов языков и назвать ее ключевые характеристики. Статус терминозаимствований как единиц, связанных с процессом контакта языков, позволяет определить заимствования в юридической терминологии как термин или терминоэлемент чужого языка, перенесенный из одного языка в другой в результате языкового взаимодействия и языковых контактов. При этом если <em>юридическая терминология</em> – это особая подсистема языка науки, которая подчинена общим закономерностям того или иного языка, то <em>юридический термин</em> – это словесное обозначение государственно-правовых понятий, с помощью которых выражается и закрепляется содержание нормативно-правовых предписаний государства. Ключевыми характеристиками юридического термина являются: соотнесенность его с понятием; смысловая точность, которая предполагает четкость, конкретность значения; номинативный характер; однозначность, что объясняется его соотнесенностью с конкретным научным понятием.</p> Balqees Salman Jawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 17 30 РИТОРИЧЕСКИЕ ВОПРОСЫ В СТИХОТВОРНОЙ РЕЧИ <p>В статье представлена характеристика, с одной стороны, риторических вопросов как как специального синтаксически стилистического приема, суть которого заключается в изменении грамматического значения вопросительного предложения, а с другой стороны, речь художественного текста, которая является предметом стилистической интерпретации, направленная на исследование значений языковых единиц, которые представляют собой объективную реальность, где прослеживается идейно-образное содержание, что находит выражение в необычной, отличной от других словесных произведений форме; выделены три основные научные подходы к рассмотрению риторических вопросов: 1) лингвокогнитивный; 2) лингвистический когнитивно-синергетический; 3) лингвопрагматический.</p> Montasra Abdul Rahman Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 31 46 The Feminist Metaphorics of Herland in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Poetry <p>As a primordial feminist writer and activist in the modernist times Charlotte Perkins Gilman produced an oeuvre that is so replete with the feminist metaphorics that draws on the feminist milieu of the times as well as engages the timeless Darwinist and Marxist legacies. Her feminist metaphorics is thus shown as rooted in utopianism as best represented in such fictional universes as <em>Herland </em>that, though apparently embedded in the economico-biological utopian theorizing and literature, tends to deviate from and re-contextualize the categorical and genre expectations about the female experience in a man-oriented world and literature. On the other hand, her poetry is energized and governed by the economics of writing that characterizes the feminist writing of all time, and even of the later women-poets; mainly, the urgent impetus to write differently and to procure change. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Amer Rasool Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 47 54 10.31973/aj.v0i131.554 Developing the Writing Skill of the University of Technology' Students by using Clustering Technique <p>The difficulties in writing are considered one of the most significant problems that have an effect on non-native English speakers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims at developing the writing skills by using clustering technique to the University of Technology' students, then making a comparison between students' performance in writing in a per and post-test. A pre-test was made to the students to know their level in writing an essay then a course of study in teaching writing by using clustering technique was delivered to the students then a post-test is taken by students. The study aims at showing the influence using clustering technique in students' performance in writing. So the results have shown that there is a great development in students’ performance in writing after their involvement in the course</p> Ban Kadhim Abed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 55 70 Evaluative Resources in Medical Research Articles Written by Medical Writers <p>Many studies have been presented about the topic of medical researches and articles ,but it has been noticed that the previously mentioned studies haven’t dealt with language usage in terms of attitude and emotional status . Such a topic still needs&nbsp; more attention from scholars and researchers . The current study is expected to enrich the literature about medical articles from a linguistic point of view. The evaluation was done following Martin and White model (2005) which mainly comprised of three important systems&nbsp; ( attitude , engagement and graduation).</p> Muna Abdul Hussien Swayer Mayada Rahim Eesa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 71 88 Use of Social Time in Iraqi culture <p>Post-modern societies conceive time as ‘money’, where every minute counts, whilst pre-modern societies treat time more liberally; hours and days are utilized less effectively, with little achieved at its end. <strong>Method:</strong> A quantitative method of data collection has been used to compare two samples from different cultures, <strong>Results:</strong> A large divide was observed between the sample of a post-modern society at Leeds University when compared to that of a pre-modern society in the form of students at Baghdad University. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> At present a large difference is observed between the two sample groups P&lt;.0001. This may seem to be an unbridgeable gap when the two societies are compared side by side. Societal change is required in Iraq that draws importance to the value of time, and this should occur as the process of industrialization and urbanization proceeds at an accelerated pace in the future</p> Fajir J Alwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 89 106 The Comparative Study: Social Competence of Children in the United Arab Emirates and Iraq <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Physical, psychological, and socio-cultural traits may vary, globalization has increased the range of differentiation through mass movements, developments in communication technology, and the recent penetration of the values of subcultures in dominant cultures, leading to the concept of multi-cultural societies. Comparative studies are becoming increasingly significant in sociological research, as in this study which investigates the differences in children’s social competence within contemporary communities. To understand social competence, researchers must consider its social context. Analysis of the national context of children’s behavior must be developed to understand the culture of the children of a country, particularly, in a world where the phenomena of globalization and convergence are a reality. The present study aims to identify the differences in the levels of social competence of children from Iraq and the United Arab Emirates by administering a social competence questionnaire to 300 children. The results reveal a significant difference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> آلاء عبد الله الطائي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 107 122 10.31973/aj.v0i131.435 Unpublished Economic Texts From the Old Babylonian Period <p>The cuneiform texts considered one of the most important resources which play an important role , and help us to know how was the economic , politic and religious conditions , and everything related of the history of Mesopotamia , which contain many information that enrich our knowldgement about&nbsp; Mesopotamia civilization , since using writing as a way to documentation the science and human knowldgement .</p> Shaimaa Nassir Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 123 134 The Place duality in Emily Nasrallah's narration "The Days of the cat <p>The element of place and its employment within the structure of narration is one of the most important elements and techniques in contemporary narratives, especially in the narratives that concern the subject of war. Wars often occur to control the territory of the adversary. The narratives that shed light on the war and its effects such as destruction, murder and migration focus on Place as a key component. This study aims at addressing the issue of the place and its dualities in Emily Nasrallah's narration "The Days of the cat" (1931-2018), a writer of woman, war and migration, which studies the war and its impacts in this narration from a completely different point of view. It deals with the story of the stray cats and their fate during the war and their relations with the people in particular The boys, on the tongue of special narrator that is a cat named "Zico"</p> <p>One of the most important findings in this study is that the real places in this narration is distributed between the interior and the outside according to the sense that is conveyed to the people in it. Open places aren't a constant source of happiness, and the place can share its roles among itself, depending on its population's sense of place. The place has been employed in narration and its relationship to personalities, to represent the material and spiritual losses that affected it and its residents, and to express human relations in the disasters that were experienced by ordinary combatants and ordinary people, as well as by animals in the midst of the Lebanese civil war.</p> زهرا فرید ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 131 475 500 10.31973/aj.v0i131.434