Al-Adab Journal http://aladabj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/aladabjournal <p>Al-Adab journal&nbsp;</p> <p>a scientific academic&nbsp;peer-review&nbsp; Journal published by College of Arts , University of Baghdad .</p> <p>It is edited regularly within a specific time . Four issues per year in March , June , September and December .</p> <p>Al-Adab journal is specified for publishing the researches and studies related to various humanities fields.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 1994-473X</p> <p>Online ISSN:&nbsp;2706-9931</p> <p>Indexed at Crossref</p> Baghdad University - College of Arts en-US Al-Adab Journal 1994-473X <p><strong>Copyright and Licensing:</strong><br>For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license</strong></a>, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.</p> <p><strong>Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers:&nbsp;</strong>It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).</p> <p><strong>Permission is required for:&nbsp;</strong>Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.<br>Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.<br>Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.<br>Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.</p> <p><br><strong>Permission is not required for:&nbsp;</strong>Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".<br>Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.<br>Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.<br>Obtaining Permission</p> <p>In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.</p> <p>The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.</p> Social Mobility in James Kelman’s A Disaffection http://aladabj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/aladabjournal/article/view/882 <p>Though social mobility in the post-industrial society of Scotland has helped changing social class structure, Scottish working class still suffers from cultural devaluation. That is to say, in a post-industrial society, knowledge is not really the main human capital. The purpose of this study is to explore Kelman’s untraditional cultural and social representation of the Scottish working class individual and his everyday experiences. Based on the novelist’s individualization of the Scottish working class characters, the study argues that in the post-industrial times in which social mobility can be achieved, contemporary societies like Glasgow still suffers from class division and cultural fragmentation. This article discusses Kelman<em>’</em>s novel <em>A Disaffection</em> (1989), exploring the character of Patrick Doyle, a bitter and alienated schoolteacher whose portrayal raises&nbsp; questions about the role of education in social mobility, issues of cultural and class estrangement, which form a major factor in reconstructing or deconstructing the working class identity.</p> Fadi Mumtaz Alrayes Anan J Lewis Alkass Yousif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 134 43 56 10.31973/aj.v0i134.882 The Indexes of Thermal Equilibrium of Human Body in Iraq http://aladabj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/aladabjournal/article/view/752 <p>تعد درجات الحرارة، بوصفها عنصراً مناخياً، عاملاً مؤثراً في صحة الإنسان وتحديد التوازن الحراري لجسمه. وتمثلت أهداف البحث في استخراج قيم التوازن الحراري لجسم الإنسان في العراق باستخدام معادلة أدولف ومعرفة مقدار الحرارة المكتسبة والمفقودة وتحليل مؤشراتها في أثناء النهار والليل، وذلك بالاعتماد على المنهج الوصفي وأسلوب التحليل الكمي للبيانات المناخية لـ(21) محطة مناخية مختارة ضمن منطقة الدراسة لمدة عشرين عاماً ممتدة بين عامي (2000) و(2019).ومن استنتاجات البحث وجود تباين مكاني كبير بين محطات منطقة الدراسة في أثناء النهار وفي أثناء الليل، وكلما توجهنا من شمال منطقة الدراسة نحو جنوبها تزداد كميات الحرارة المكتسبة وتقل كميات الحرارة المفقودة والعكس صحيح.كما توجد علاقة طردية بين درجات الحرارة والكسب الحراري في منطقة الدراسة، بينما توجد علاقة عكسية بين درجات الحرارة والفقد الحراريفيها. وقدمنا في ضوء هذه الاستنتاجات مجموعة من التوصيات إلى الجهات المعنية.</p> hadeia mohammed ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 134 455 486 10.31973/aj.v0i134.752 The effect of synoptic patterns on pressure level (500 Hectobascal) on the occurrence of heavy rains in Sulaymaniyah province http://aladabj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/aladabjournal/article/view/813 <p>Heavy rain refers to the large number of rains in a specific period of time, and because of the different geographical characteristics, the determination of the ingredients and quantities of these rains varies from one region to another. Because of the topography and the geographical location of the Sulaymaniyah Governorate, which is located in the semi-tropical regions, therefore heavy rain falls, including heavy rains, therefore the presence of rugged mountains in this province has a great importance in reserving air humidity and thus heavy rains fall. In this paper, the classification of synoptic patterns of heavy rains in Sulaymaniyah Governorate and the climatic characteristics of this phenomenon have been highlighted according to location and time.</p> <p>The research indicates that the occurrence of heavy rains occurs in mountainous regions more than the plain areas, and for the time of the occurrence of the phenomenon there was a difference in the frequency of heavy rains according to the seasons for all stations in the winter (61.4%) and (20.5%) in the spring and ( 17.9%) in the fall semester. In addition, at the level of months, months came (February, December, January), as the most frequent numbers of heavy rains were recorded. As for the classification of synoptic patterns, and after determining (97) joint days for heavy rains in the Sulaymaniyah governorate and their representation with synoptic maps, the maps were distributed to (7) different groups. The most frequent group (D) was (45) members, meaning the eastern Mediterranean dawn.</p> othman abdulrhman ali ahmed taha ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 134 487 512 10.31973/aj.v0i134.813