The beginnings of the shift towards reconciliation in Lebanese-Syrian relations (1933-1936)
The first ten years of the French Mandate experiment on Syria and the Greater Lebanon state in 1920 showed that France placed its interest above all other interests, and that its relationship with any political or sectarian class was to the extent that it fit with French supreme interests. France has promised that it is the guardian of the states subject to its mandate. There is no crisis that French capitalism was subjected to but was exporting to its colonies abroad, including Syria and the State of Greater Lebanon. After the economic crisis that struck the world capitalism in 1929, France resorted, in an attempt to alleviate the severity of that crisis, to practicing monopoly on a large scale within Little states monopolized basic commodities, controlled the movement of buying and selling, and did not leave their companies and capital a vital facility except and fully exploited it.This monopolistic policy was the catalyst for all the Syrian and Lebanese social groups, which drove them to become aware of their basic interests, to bring the steps of convergence between them free, largely free of sectarian and regional considerations, and the introduction of their social and economic issues on all other issues.
Al Kayyali, Abd al-Rahman (1958): The stages in the French Mandate and in its national struggle, part one, Aleppo.
Al Kayyali, Abdel-Wahab (1981): The Political Encyclopedia, Part Two, The Arab Institute for Studies and Publishing, Beirut.
Al Kayyali, Zuhairi, Abdel Wahab and Kamel (1974): The Political Foundation, Arab Foundation for Studies and Publishing, Beirut.
Al-Baroudi (1999): Honorary Notes and Notes 1887-1966, Prepared and Realized by: Raad Al-Hakim, Publications of the Ministry of Culture in the Syrian Arab Republic, Damascus.
Al-Bashir (newspaper), Beirut, No. 5000, on March 17, 1936.
Alhakim, Youssef (1983): Syria and the French Mandate, Dar Al-Nahar, Beirut.
Aljisr , Basim (without history): The Charter of 1943, why was it? Did it fall?, Beirut.
Al-Khalili, Maher Jabbar (2009): Intellectual Current in Lebanon 1952-1943, Unpublished Master Thesis, College of Arts, University of Baghdad.
Al-Mokattam (newspaper), Cairo, No. 13993, on January 11, 1935.
Al-Mokattam (newspaper), Cairo, No. 14351, January 22, 1936.
Al-Nahar (newspaper), Beirut, No. 766, March 12, 1936.
Al-Samad, Riyadh (1995): The State's Modern Social and Political Institutions, the Lebanese Model in the Light of the Latest Legislations, University Institute for Studies and Publishing, Beirut.
Arida, Patriarch Anton (1987): Lebanon and France, basic historical documents highlighting the role of Bkerke in the face of the French Mandate, transferred to Arabic: Faris Ghossoub, Dar Al-Farabi, Beirut.
Hallaq, Hassan (1982): The Coast and Four Districts Conference, 1939, University House, Beirut.
International Information, (2009): Lebanon's Representatives and Parliamentary Elections 1960-2009, Al-Nahar Publishing House, Beirut.
Media in Lebanon's Memory (2001): National Archives Publications, The Printing Group, First Edition, Beirut.
Nasir al-Din, Ali (1952): This is how we were writing, Beirut.
Nikolai, Hofha Nassyan (1974): The National Liberation Struggle in Lebanon 1939-1958, Dar Al-Farabi for Publishing and Distribution, Beirut.
Noman, Paul (1998): Maronite stations from the history of Lebanon.
Rabat, Admon (1970): The Mediator in Lebanese Constitutional Law, Section Two, First Edition, Dar al-Alam for Millions, Beirut.
Rondo, Pierre (1984): Sects in the Lebanese State, New Book House, Beirut.
Salam, (1982): Salim Ali's Notes (1867-1938), with a study of Arab-French-Lebanese relations, Beirut.
The Ambassador (1978): Information Center Publications, Maronite Political, Beirut.
The soldier, Adham (without date), masterpiece of time, arranging translations of literature and art, volume one, first edition, Dar Al-Muqtas.
The Straight Pen (magazine) (1933): Marjeyoun, No. 93, on December 18.
The Syrian Official (Newspaper), (1933): Parliamentary Notes, No. 22, on November 30.
Tunisian, Musa Al-Kazim (1972): Documents of Foreign Intervention in the Arab World, Dar Al-Baath, Damascus, Part One.
Work, (1977): an intellectual poetry and documentary magazine, Beirut, No. 7, September.
Youssef, Bashar Hassan (2000): The Evolution of Party Life in Lebanon 1946-1958, Unpublished Master Thesis, College of Education, University of Mosul.
المصادر الأجنبية: Foreign sources
Albert, HOURANI: (( Minorities In the Arab World )), Oxford, 1947, P.76.
Andre, RAYMOND : (( la Syria d, Aujourd, hui )), Auteur inconnu. Centre de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980.
M. A. E. F: E-Levant, Syrie-Libnan 1930 – 1940, V.498.
Mnistere Des Affaires Etrangeres Erangaises : E-Levant, Syrie-Libnan 1930 – 1940, V.498.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.