Russian - Ottoman Relations
During the Reign of Czar Peter the Great 1682-1725
The Russian-Ottoman Relations occupied a great deal of interest in the History of International Relations in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries، due to their logistic importance in the episodes of the conflict within the Eastern Question، which accompanied the diminishing power of the Ottoman Empire and the raised of the European powers greed to divide their possessions in Europe، Asia and Africa. Under the reign of Czar Peter the Great، Russia played a pivotal role in that conflict، in response to the supreme goals of the Romanov Czars، to break the isolation imposed by Geography and Climate on their Country، and to reach the Warm، Navigable waters، To keep up with the wheel of Evolution and Modernization adopted by Peter during his Reign 1682-1725.
- Mohamed Fouad Shoukry, ( 1960) The Struggle between the Bourgeoisie and feudalism 1789-1848, Volume 3, Arab Thought House, Cairo.
- Mohammed Kamal Al-Desouki, (1967) Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question, Cairo, Dar al-D'Culture.
- Hashim Al-Tikriti, (2015) Introduction to the modern history of Russia (The establishment of the modern Russian state and the beginning of its expansion), first edition, Adnan House and Library.
- Hassan Labib, (1921) Eastern Matter, Egypt, Crescent Press.
- Abdelhamid *Al-* Patreeq and Abdelaziz Nowar, (1974) Modern European History, Beirut, Dar Ennahda.
- Mohammed Farid Bek, (1977) History of the Ottoman-Alawyah State, Beirut, Dar Al-Jil.
- Jalal Yahya, (1976) Landmarks of Modern History, Alexandria, Knowledge Facility.
- Ali Haidar Suleiman, (1990) History of Modern European Civilization, Baghdad, Dar Al Wasit, First Edition.
- Ali Shoaib, (1992) Peter the Great Caesar of Russia, Lebanese Thought House, Beirut, First Edition.
- Salim Kab'en, (2015) History of the Romanof, Hindawi Foundation for Education and Culture, Cairo.
- Milad A. Al-Megrahi, (1996) Modern History of Europe 1453-1848, Publications of the University of Qaryons - Benghazi, First Edition.
- Ashraf Saleh Mohammed, (2009) Origins of Modern European History, Nashiri Electronic Publishing House, First Electronic Edition, Kuwait.
- Abdel Fattah Abu Alia and Ismail Ahmed Yaghi, (1993) Modern and Contemporary History of Europe, 3rd Edition, Riyadh, Mars Publishing House.
- Abdelhamid Al-Penguin and Abdelaziz Nowar, Modern European History from the Renaissance to The Fina Conference, Arab Renaissance House for Printing and Publishing, Beirut, Without History.
- Encyclopedia of World Celebrities, (2002) Preparation of a Group of Authors, Part III, Arab Friendship House, First Edition, Beirut.
Secondly, the Arabized Books are:
- Yilmaz Oztona, History of the Ottoman Empire, Translation: Adnan Mahmoud Salman, (1988) Review and Revision: Mahmoud Ansari, Volume 1, Faisal Finance Foundation Publications, Istanbul- Turkey, First Edition.
- Encyclopedia of the general history of Europe from the beginning of the 14th century until the end of the 18th century, Jean Bernier, Philippe Kontamen and others, supervised by: Roland Moussinier and Georges Levé, translation: Wajih Al-Baini review: Antoine Al-Hashim, first edition, 1990, Aweidat Publications, Beirut - Paris.
- Viktor Boganov, (1990) The Life of Peter the Great, Translation: Khairi Al-Daman, House of Progress, Moscow.
- Jeffrey Brun, (2006) Modern History of Europe, Translation: Ali Marzouki, Eligibility for Publishing and Distribution, First Edition, Amman.
- Alan Taylor, The Struggle for Sovereignty in Europe, Translated by Kazem Hashem Nehme and Yoel Youssef Aziz, (No Year) .
- Alexiev and Kartsov, (1967) History of the Soviet Union, Translation: Muhammad al-Jundi, Moscow, House of Progress.
- Bassam Al-Asali, Boutros Al-Akbar, The Arab Institute for Studies and Publishing, First Edition, 1980.
Third: Research and Studies:
- Mash'al Mifarah Zahir, (2011) Internal Situations in Russia 1725-1762, Research published in the Journal of Literature - Basra, Issue 56, Year.
- Nagham Talib Abdullah, Ottoman policy towards Austria from the opening of Belgrade to the Treaty of Karlowitz historical data and analysis of results, research published in the journal Route Educational and Social Science Journal ISSN: 2148-5518 Volume 5 (9), July 2018.
- Nagham Talib Abdullah, Anglican and reading on the evolution of the Episcopal Protestant Church in the United States of America, research published in the Journal of the Faculty of Arts, University of Baghdad, Issue 109, 2014.
- Nadia Jassim Kazem Al-Shammari, Russian Tsar Peter the Great's Journey to Europe 1679-1698, Research published in the Journal of Babylon University / Humanities, Volume 24, Issue 1. Year 2016.
- Abbas Abdul-Wahab Ali Al-Saleh, Trends of Russian Policy Toward the Ottoman Empire during the Reign of Tsar Peter I 1689-1725, Research published in the Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities Science, Volume 17, Issue 6, June 2010.
Second: English Books:
-Jacob Abbott, (1985) History of Peter the Great Emperor of Russia, New York.
-Walter k. Kelly, History of Russia From the Earliest period to the Present Time, in Two Volumes, Vol: I, London, 1854.
- Bernard Pares, (1949) A History of Russia, London.
- Benedict Humphrey Sumner, (1965) Peter The Great and Ottoman Empire, U.S.
- Frances A. Shaw,) (1877) A Brief History of Russia, Boston.
- W. Tooke, F.R.S., History of Russia from the Foundation of the Monarchy By Rurik to the Accession of Catharine The Second, in Two Volumes, Vol: II, London, 1800.
- George Vernadsky , A History of Russia, Oxford, 1951.
- Marianne S. Wokeck, Joy Wiltenburg, Alison Duncan Hirsch (ed), et al. , (1986) The Papers of William penn, Vol: Three, 1685- 1700, University of Pennsylvania press, Philadelphia.
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