Use of Social Time in Iraqi culture
Post-modern societies conceive time as ‘money’, where every minute counts, whilst pre-modern societies treat time more liberally; hours and days are utilized less effectively, with little achieved at its end. Method: A quantitative method of data collection has been used to compare two samples from different cultures, Results: A large divide was observed between the sample of a post-modern society at Leeds University when compared to that of a pre-modern society in the form of students at Baghdad University. Conclusion: At present a large difference is observed between the two sample groups P<.0001. This may seem to be an unbridgeable gap when the two societies are compared side by side. Societal change is required in Iraq that draws importance to the value of time, and this should occur as the process of industrialization and urbanization proceeds at an accelerated pace in the future
Alneamy F J, (1993) The Ruralisation of the city with special reference to Baghdad, Unpublished Ph D thesis, The University of Hull.
Altabary, (1995) History of Nations and Kings, Beirut, Lebanon, The science Books House Publishers (Arabic).
Bauman Z, (2000), Liquid Modernity, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Beattie J, (1985) Other Cultures: Aims, Methods and Achievement in Social Anthropology, London, Routledge & Kegan- Paul.
Bock, Ph. (1978) Modern Cultural Anthropology: An Introduction, New York, Random House. Inc.
Broom L, Selznick, Ph, and Darroch D B, (1981) Sociology: A Text with Adapted Readings, 7th ed, New York, Harper and Row, Publishers.
Bryman A, (2001) Social Research Methods, New York, Oxford University Press.
Castells M, (2000) The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford, Blackwell
Dürrschmidt J and Taylor G, (2007) Globalization Modernity and Social Change: Hotspots of Transition, New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
Durkheim E, (1915) Elementary Forms of religious life, Translated by J W Swain, London, Allen & Unwin.
Eckel M D, (2005) “Buddhism” in Coogan M D (ed) Eastern religions, London, Duncan Baird Publishers.
Giddens A, (1984) The Constitution of Society, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Giddens A, (1990) Sociology, London, Polity Press.
Giddens A, (1995) Europe in the Global Age, London, Polity Press.
Hall E, (1959) The silent Language, N Y, Doubleday.
Hall E, and Hall M R, (1987) Hidden Differences: Doing Business with Japanese, New York Anchor Press, Doubleday.
Hall E, (1989) Beyond Culture, New York, Anchor Books |Edition.
Hofstede, G (1994) Cultures and Organizations, London, Harper Collins Publishers.
Herodotus, (1997) The Histories, London, The open University, J. M Dent: the Orion Publishing Group.
Jordan T and Pile S, (2002) Social Change, Oxford, UK, Blackwell Publishing.
Liven R V and Wolff E, (1985) “Social Time: The Heartbeat of Culture” Psychology Today, Vol.19. March issue. PP.28-32
Lee D, and Newby H, (1984) The Problem of Sociology, London, Hutchinson Co (Publisher)Ltd.
Lewis J. D and Weigart A. J, (1981) “The Structure and Meaning of Social-time” Social Forces, 60, PP. 432-62.
Littleton C. S, (2005) “Shinto” in Coogan M D (ed) Eastern religions, London, Duncan Baird Publishers.
Merton R, K, (1967) On Theoretical Sociology, New York, Free Press
Narayanan V, (2005) “Hinduism” in Coogan M D (ed) Eastern religions, London, Duncan Baird Publishers.
Oldstone-Moor J, (2005) “Taoism” in Coogan M D (ed) Eastern religions, London, Duncan Baird Publishers.
Plato, (1941) The Republic of Plato, translated by Cornford F M, London Oxford University Press.
Rich N, (1989) “Hitler’s Foreign Policy” in Emsley C, Marwick A, and Simpson W, (eds) War, Peace and Social Change in Twentieth Century Europe, Milton Keynes. Philadelphia, Open University Press.
Sorokin P and Merton R K, (1937) “Social Time: A Methodological and Functional Analysis” American Journal of Sociology, Vo. 42, PP. 615-29
Strasser H, and Randall S, (1981) An Introduction to Theories of Social Change, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul
Sztompka P, (1998) The Sociology of Social Change, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Thomson E P, (1967) “Time, Work-discipline and Industrial Capitalism”, Past and Present, No. 38, PP. 56-97
Toffler A, (1971) Future Shock, London & Sydney, Hazell Watson & Viney Ltd.
Weber, M, (1976/ 1930) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirt of Capitalism, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Zaloom c, (2004) “Time-Space and Technology in Financial Technology” in Castells M, (ed), The Network Society: A Cross Cultural Perspective, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Zerubavel E, (1990) “Private-time and Public-time” in Hassard, J (ed) The Sociology of Time, London, Macmillan.
All copyrights are reserved for the AL-Adab Journal. It is prohibited to print, copy, translate or re compose the journal whether completely or partly. Recording on cassettes, saving to computer or programming on optical discs are also prohibited without a written consent of the publisher, otherwise legal prosecution will take place by the Iraqi judicature.
Editor in chief