Developing the Writing Skill of the University of Technology' Students by using Clustering Technique
The difficulties in writing are considered one of the most significant problems that have an effect on non-native English speakers. This study aims at developing the writing skills by using clustering technique to the University of Technology' students, then making a comparison between students' performance in writing in a per and post-test. A pre-test was made to the students to know their level in writing an essay then a course of study in teaching writing by using clustering technique was delivered to the students then a post-test is taken by students. The study aims at showing the influence using clustering technique in students' performance in writing. So the results have shown that there is a great development in students’ performance in writing after their involvement in the course
Bell, R. T. (1991) Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. London: Longman
Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: principles and classroom practices. New York: Pearson Education.
Barbara Fine Clouse, (2005), A Trouble shooting Guides Strategies & Process for Writers, New York: McGraw Hill, 4th Edition, p. 24-26)
Ellis, R. (2003).Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frans M. Royan, (2004), Cluster Strategy, Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, p. 82
Grabowski, J. (1996). Writing and speaking: Common ground and differences toward a regulation theory of written language production. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing (pp. 1-27). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hamp-Lyons, L., & Kroll, B. (1997). TOEFL 2000 – writing: Composition, community, and assessment. New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.
Hoey, M. (1991) Patterns of Lexis in Text. Oxford: Oxford University Press
H. Manser, (1995), Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, p.190
Hughes, A. (2003) Testing for Language Teachers, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kroll, B. (1990). Considerations for Teaching an ESL/EFL Writing Course. In Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.). (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed., pp. 219-232). New York: Heinle & Heinle.
Myles, J. (2002). Second language writing and research: The writing process and error analysis in student texts. Teaching English as a second or foreign language Jour-nal, 6(2),1-19.
McCroarty, M. (1996).Language attitudes, motivation, and standards: Sociolinguistics and language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press
Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mukulu, E.,Indangasi, H., Mwangi, P., Gecaga,C. &Okanga, N. (2006.) KCSE revision English. Nairobi.Kenya Literature Bureau.
Negari, G.M. (2011). A study on strategy instruction EFL learners’ writing. International journal of English linguistics. Vol. 1 (2), 299-307.
Ouma, N. (2005). “Relationship between achievement motivation and performance in English composition among secondary school students in Nyando district, Ken-ya”. Unpublished masters thesis. Kenyatta University.
Rao.Z. (2007).Training in brainstorming and developing writing skills. ETL Journal, 61(2), 44-51.
Reppen, R. (2002). The genre-based approach to content writing instruction. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 321-327). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667190.045.\
Jack C. Richard and Theodore S. Rodgers, (1986), Approach and Language Teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 15
Weir, C. J. (1990) Communicative Language Testing. New York: Prentice Hall.
Yule, G. (1996) The Study of Language, second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.View publication
All copyrights are reserved for the AL-Adab Journal. It is prohibited to print, copy, translate or re compose the journal whether completely or partly. Recording on cassettes, saving to computer or programming on optical discs are also prohibited without a written consent of the publisher, otherwise legal prosecution will take place by the Iraqi judicature.
Editor in chief