The Comparative Study: Social Competence of Children in the United Arab Emirates and Iraq
Social Competence of Children in the United Arab Emirates and Iraq
Physical, psychological, and socio-cultural traits may vary, globalization has increased the range of differentiation through mass movements, developments in communication technology, and the recent penetration of the values of subcultures in dominant cultures, leading to the concept of multi-cultural societies. Comparative studies are becoming increasingly significant in sociological research, as in this study which investigates the differences in children’s social competence within contemporary communities. To understand social competence, researchers must consider its social context. Analysis of the national context of children’s behavior must be developed to understand the culture of the children of a country, particularly, in a world where the phenomena of globalization and convergence are a reality. The present study aims to identify the differences in the levels of social competence of children from Iraq and the United Arab Emirates by administering a social competence questionnaire to 300 children. The results reveal a significant difference.
Blumberg, S. J., Carle, A. C., O’Connor, K. S., Moore, K. A., and Lippman, L. H. (2008). Social competence: Development of an indicator for children and adolescents. Child Indicators Research 1: 176–197.
Campbell, S. B. (1991). Longitudinal studies of active and aggressive preschoolers: Individual differences in early behavior and outcomes. In D. Cicchetti and S. L. Toth (eds.), Internalizing and Externalizing Expressions of Dysfunction. Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 57–89.
Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior Problems in Preschool Children: Clinical and Developmental Issues (2nd edn.). New York: Guilford Press.
Danby, S, & Farrell, A,. (2004). Accounting for young children’s competence in educational research: new perspectives on research ethics. The Australian Educational Researcher, Volume 31, Number 3, 35-50.
Deaux, K. (1998). Defining gender roles and stereotypes psychological constructions of masculinity and femininity. In D. L. R Anselmi and A. L. Law (eds.), Questions of Gender: Perspectives and Paradoxes, 1st edn. New York: McGraw Hill Press, 206–215.
Denham, A., Hatfield, S., Smethurst, N., Tan, E., and Tribe, C.(2006). The effects of social skills interventions in the primary school. Educational Psychology in Practice 22(1): 33–51.
French, D. C., Jansen, E. A., and Pidada, S. (2002). United States and Indonesian children’s and adolescents’ reports of relational aggression by disliked peers. Child Development 73: 1143–1150.
Fry, P. G. (1994). Expanding multicultural curriculum: Helping children discover cultural similarities. Social Studies and the Young Learner 6(3): 12–15.
García Coll, C., Marks, A., Patton, F., and Slama, S. (2009). A longitudinal study of adolescent immigrant paradox in education. Paper presented at the meeting of Society for Research in Child Development, April. Denver, CO.
Gasser, M. B. (1995). Cultural Tolerance Scale. In M. B. Gasser, Cultural Tolerance: Measurement and Validation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 10B-10B.
Han, H. S. and Kemple, K. M.(2006). Components of social competence and strategies of support: Considering what to teach and how. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(3): 241–246.
Hair, E., Halle, T., Terry-Humen, E., Lavelle, B. E., and Calkins, J. (2006). Children’s school readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to academic, health, and social outcomes in first grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 21: 431–454.
Harkness, S. (2002). Culture and social development: Explanations and evidence. In P. Smith and C. Hart (eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 60–77.
Hart, C., Yang, C., Nelson, L., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, J. A., Nelson, D. A., Porter, C. L., Jin, S., Olsen, S. F., and Wu, P.(2006). Peer acceptance in early childhood and subtypes of socially withdrawn behavior in China, Russia, and the United States . International Journal of Behavioral Development 24: 73–81.
Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. H., Hofstede, G. J., and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival (3rd edn.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hoglund, W. L., and Leadbeater, B. J. (2004).The effects of family, school, and classroom ecologies on changes in children’s social competence and emotional and behavioral problems in first grade. Developmental Psychology 40(4): 533–544.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., and Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hussong, A.M., Fitzgerald, H.E., Zucker, R.A., Wong, M.M., &Puttler, L.I. (2005). Social competence in children of alcoholic parents over time. Developmental Psychology 41(5), 747–759.
James, Allison, Jenks, Chris and Prout, Alan.(1998). Theorizing Childhood. Cambridge: Polity.
Kadesjö, B., Janols. L-O, Korkman, M., Mickelsson, K., Strand, G., Trillingsgaard, A., Lambek, R., Grim, G., Bredesen, A., and Gillberg, C. (2017). Five-To-Fifteen – Revised (5–15R).
Katz, L. G., McClellan D. E. 1997. Fostering Children’s Social Competence: The Teacher’s Role. Washington, DC: NAEYC.
Kerestes, G., and Milanovic, A. (2006). Relations between different types of children’s aggressive behavior and sociometric status among peers of the same and opposite gender. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 47(6) (December): 477–483.
Kostelnik M. J., Whiren A. P., Soderman A. K., Stein L. C., Gregory K.,( 2002). Guiding children’s social development: Theory to practice (4th edn.) Delmar New York.
Kummer, T.-F., Leimeister, J. M. and Bick, M.(2012). On the Importance of National Culture for the Design of Information Systems”. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(4): 317–330.
Lytle, A. L., Brett, J. M., Barsness, Z. I., Tinsley, C. H., and Janssens, M. (1995). A paradigm for confirmatory cross-cultural research in organizational behavior. In L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 17: 167–214. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Mackay, R. W. (1991). Conceptions of children and models of socialization. In F. C. Waksler (ed.), Studying the Social Worlds of Children: Sociological Readings. London: Falmer Press, 23–37.
Margetts, K. (2000). Children’s adjustment to the first year of schooling: Indicators of hyperactivity, internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Summary of paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education, Sydney.
Mayall, Berry.(2002). Towards a Sociology for Childhood: Thinking from Children’s Lives. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mayall, Berry, and Zeiher, Helga. (2003). Childhood in Generational Perspective. London: Institute of Education.
McNamara, K. (2005). Best practices in promotion of social competence in the schools. Best Practices in School Psychology IV: 911–928.
Moore, K. A., and Halle, T. G. (2001). Preventing problems vs. promoting the positive: What do we want for our children? In T. J. Owens and S. L. Hofferth (eds.), Children at the Millennium: Where Have We Come From? Where Are We Going? (Advances in life course research series). New York: Elsevier Science.
Moore, K. A., and Lippman, L. H. (eds). (2005). What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development. New York: Springer.
Moore, K. A., Lippman, L., and Brown, B. (2004). Indicators of child well-being: The promise for positive youth development. The Annals of the American Academy Political and Social Science 591: 125–145.
Moore, K. A., Evans, V. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Roth, J. (2001). What are good child outcomes? In A. Thornton (ed.), The Well-being of Children and Families: Research and Data Needs. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Nebbergall, A. J. 2007. Assessment of social competence and problem behavior: The psychometric properties of a social competency rating form (Unpublished master’s dissertation), Maryland University.
Nelson, D. A., Nelson, L. J., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., and Jin, S. (2000). Parenting and peer-group behavior in cultural context. In: X. Chen, D. C. French, and B. H. Schneider (eds), Peer Relationships in Cultural Context. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press: 213–246.
Nuñez, A. I. (2011). Development and validation of the Children’s Social Competence Scale. University of Denver, PhD Dissertation.
Ogbu, J. U. (1981). Origin of human competence: A cultural-ecological perspective. Child Development 52: 413–429.
Parke, R., and Buriel, R. (1998). Socialization in the family: Ethnic and ecological perspectives. In William Damon (Series ed.) and N. Eisenberg (Volume ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. New York, NY: Wiley, 463–532.
Sackmann, S. A. (1992). Culture and Subcultures: An Analysis of Organizational Knowledge. Administrative Science Quarterly 37(1): 140–161.
Sameroff, A. J., and Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: The developmental ecology of early intervention. In S. Meisels and J. Shon-koff (eds.), Early Intervention: A Handbook of Theory, Practice, and Analysis. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 135–159.
Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership (3rd edn.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Shaffer, D. R. (2005). Social and Personality Development (5th edn.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publications.
Han, H. S. and Kemple, K. M. (2006). Components of social competence and strategies of support: Considering what to teach and how. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(3): 241–246.
Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Culture and Intelligence. American Psychologist, 59(5): 325–338.
Straub, D., Loch, K., Evaristo, R., Karahanna, E., and Srite, M. (2002). Toward a theory-based measurement of culture. Journal of Global Information Management 10(1): 13–23.
Strauss, C., and Quinn, N. 91997). A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The Social Competence of Latino Kindergartners and Growth in Mathematical Understanding. PDF download available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/44569163_The_Social_Competence_of_Latino_Kindergartners_and_Growth_in_Mathematical_Understanding [accessed February 26, 2018].
Weisner, T. S. (2005). Attachment as a cultural and ecological problem with pluralistic solutions. Human Development 48: 89–94.
Wertsch, J. (19880. Vygotsky and the Social Formation of the Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Xu, Y., Farver, J. M., Schwartz, D., and Chang, L. (2004). Social networks and aggressive behavior in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development 28: 401–410.
Copyright (c) 2020 Alaa Abdullah Al-Taii
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing:
For all articles published in Al-Adab journal, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers: It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for: Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for: Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Al-Adab Journal cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.